is deerhorn, used as a source of gelatine.

haslet has come to mean a meat loaf or porky confection, especiallyin Lincolnshire. Ellis and his contemporaries, however, used it to describe the offalof a pig that might be roasted or cooked in one way or another.

hermodactyl is a medicinal root, usually of the crocus family.

hiera picra is a purgative drug, usually made with aloes.

higler or higgler is an itinerant dealer who buys in the countryto sell at market.

hitch, to: to extend. Ellis' use of the word does not seem to accordwith OED.

hoar, to, means to grow mould.

hogoo is a variant spelling of haut goût, words whichspawned a bewildering collection of alternatives.

hoop is a wooden or tin hoop or ring used for baking cakes or pastry.Those made of tin often came apart, as they do today, being joined together by ahinge and removable pin.

horny: hardened.

horse-bean is the broad bean but unimproved, grown as a feld cropfor fodder.

horse-mint is another name for water mint (Mentha aquatica).Gerard was eloquent about its smell (Grigson).

hove, to, means to swell.

humbles are innards -- usually referring to deer, but Ellis concentrateson 'hog's humbles'.

hungary water is named after a queen of Hungary, which one is neverrevealed. It is a distillation of wine and essence of rosemary.

impostume is a nasty swelling, cyst or abscess.

incarn, to: Ellis writes of 'a wound that requires digesting, deterging,incarning or cicatrizing'. To incarn means to heal by allowing the flesh to growover.

innship is a hamlet.

itch is now usually called scabies, but may encompass a host ofskin complaints.

jack-in-the-hedge that caused so much trouble to the lady thatgathered it in error, was probably Alliaria petiolata or hedge garlic, itsname deriving from 'jakes' on account of its offensive smell (said one botanist,see Grigson).

jack-jump-about is a folk name for ground elder, as well as forwild angelica. But the most likely candidate for this lady's discomfiture (was shethe same lady as picked jack-in-the-hedge?) is birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculata).

jamaica spice, jamaica pepper is allspice.

janacks: a type of bread made from fine oatmeal. Not for the frsttime, though rarely acknowledged, Ellis is quoting Gervase Markham (d. 1637),a further instance of his relying on books written during the previous century ratherthan current manuals.

jog is a protuberance or swelling. Ellis' use is the only citationin OED (though from The Modern Husbandman, not The Country Housewife,indicating how much the one book leaned on the other for text and information).

kecks or kex (in OED) is the generic term for the hollowstem of any umbelliferous plant such as wild angelica or hogweed. Grigson gives itas a particular name of hogweed (cow parsley).

kibe-heel: kibes are chilblains, especially on the heel. OEDsuggests the word may stem from the Welsh.

kiver is a shallow trough or tub, often describing that used forkneading dough, or for storing milk before skimming.

leaf is the layer of fat round the kidneys of a pig, but was thengeneralized to describe the internal fat of any animal.

lenitive means laxative. A lenitive electuary is a thick syrupthat will ease the motions.

levigate, to, means to pound in a mortar to a fine powder.

liverwort can refer to several plants, all thought beneficial tothe liver. Agrimony is one, stone liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) is another,Anemone triloba is a third, dog lichen (Peltigera canina) a fourth.Ellis does not specify.

loblolly is the same as burgoo (q.v.).

lucatellus balsam was a soothing, red-coloured ointment or syrupmade of olive oil, wax and turpentine. It was used specifically in cases of coughs,bruising and wounds.

maid-sweet is sweet cicely.

manchet is the fine white enriched loaf of medieval and early modernbakery. Johnson defines it as 'a small loaf of fine bread'.

manna is the subject of a definition by Johnson. It is the exudationor juice (then solidifed) of the manna-ash (Fraxinus ornus), grown in southernItaly -- a variant, from the larch, came from France -- it was mildly laxative.

mantle when describing beer, is the froth.

marsh-trefoil-root is buckbean (OED), although Ellis seemsto be treating the two names as distinct plants.

maukin or malkin, a mop for swabbing the oven floor. The word hadmore vulgar meanings too.

maw is stomach.

mayweed, maidweed or maythe, is stinking camomile, AnthemisCotula.

mellilot or melilot, is a plant of the clover family (Melilotusaltissima). In some districts it grew in cornfelds to such an extent as to imparta rank flavour to the bread (OED).

mithridate is an electuary effective against poisons and infections,named for the King of Pontus. It, like theriac, was a polypharmaceutical of classicalorigin, fast falling into disrepute by Ellis' time.

mountain is mountain wine, fortifed wine from Malaga grown in themountains immediately to the north of that city.

mudgell-hole is not defined by OED, but perhaps means standingwater in a yard that is 'muddled' by ducks and geese, or one that is an outlet fordrains.

mugget is the intestines of a calf or sheep.

mum is a kind of beer originally imported from Brunswick duringthe 17th and 18th centuries (OED). However, John Nott gives a recipe and refersto English mum-makers: it was aged and complex, full of aromatics and flavourings.

naples-biskets are the original of sponge-fingers, sometimes alsoa small macaroon made with pine-nuts (E. David, glossing Nott, Cooks and ConfectionersDictionary, 1726). See also the glossary to John Evelyn, Cook.

ort is a word to describe scraps or left-overs, be they for humansor for animals. Ellis is advising his housewife on the true economy of the kitchen.


  bell-orange, is the variety most favoured by Ellis. Perhapsit was related to the Bergamot pears, of which there were several.

  black worcester, is a famed baking pear (see TraditionalFoods of Britain).

  cadilliac, was also known as Cadillac or Catillac, and wasa cooking variety originally, as were so many, from France.

  warden, were a near-local type, named for the Bedfordshireabbey of Warden.

peck: two gallons of wheat make a peck, four pecks a bushel. Asa dry measure, it was 14 pounds.

peggings are defined in the OED only by reference to Ellis.In his Modern Husbandman he describes them as the chaff which is swept offthe heap of corn after winnowing.

penny-grass is probably yellow rattle (Rhinanthus minor),a grassland weed.

petre-salt is defined by Woodward (1728): 'Nitre, while . . .inits native state, is called petre-salt, when refin'd, salt-petre.' It is potassiumnitrate.

pilla-cochia is a medicine, a purge: its composition is unknown.

pincushions: 'Hertfordshire pincushions' are squares of paste whichpuff like pincushions when boiled.

plaister of paracelsus: plaisters or plasters were an adhesivesalve spread on muslin or skin. Paracelsus (d.1541) promoted mineral substancesas healing agents and thought the body produced its own healing balsam.

pollard is bran.

posset is a hot drink made of milk curdled with an acid (wine,ale, citrus juice).

pottle measures two quarts.

precipitate is mercury reduced to a powder by solution in acid.Precipitation is the opposite of sublimation. The powder is corrosive.

quicksilver is mercury.

quince, portugal, is among the most important and most popularquince varieties, identifed by John Gerard and still grown today.

raddle is red-ochre. Rams wear a raddle (ruddle, reddle) or harnessof coloured earth strapped to their chests to mark any ewes that they have tupped.

randan is the coarsest wheat flour. Other citations in the OEDdefine it as bran ground as fine as flour.

rennet-wort is probably lady's bedstraw (Galium verum),used to curdle milk in the absence of calf's rennet. OED, following RichardBradley (a regular source for Ellis too), suggests it is Galium aparine, goosegrassor clivers: unlikely here.

ridder seive is the largest sort of wheat sieve.

rocambole is Allium scorodoprasum or sand leek, a milderform of garlic.

roll brimstone is presumably a piece of brimstone formed into aball or roll.

roman vitriol is sulphate of copper. It is also called blue vitriol.

rowel is a circular piece of leather or other material, with ahole in the centre, placed between an animal's flesh and its skin to provoke andpermit the discharge of humours or pus.

russel, oil of: it is not clear what this is. It is possibly avariant spelling of rosil which is rosin, solid resin after the distillation of turpentine.

rust, to, is the verb that describes turning rusty or resty, i.e.rancid.