The Food Enzyme Concept



   Dr. Edward Howell

   With research contribution by
Maynard Murray, M.D.



Wayne, New Jersey


   The medical and health procedures in this book are based on the training, personal experience, and research of the author. Because each person and situation is unique, the author and publisher urge the reader to check with a qualified health professional before using any procedure where there is any question as to its appropriateness.

   The publisher does not advocate the use of any particular diet and exercise program, but believes the information presented in this book should be available to the public.

   Because there is always some risk involved, the author and publisher are not responsible for any adverse effects or consequences resulting from the use of any of the suggestions, preparations, or procedures in this book. Please do not use the book if you are unwilling to assume the risk. Feel free to consult a physician or other qualified health professional. It is a sign of wisdom, not cowardice, to seek a second or third opinion.

Cover art by Tim Peterson Cover design by Rudy Shur
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Howell, Edward, 1898— Enzyme nutrition.
Includes index
   1. Enzymes--Therapeutic use. 2. Nutrition.
1.  Murray, Maynard. II. Title. [DNLM: 1. Enzymes.
2. Nutrition. QU 135 H859e]
RM666.E55H68 1985 616.8'54 85-11222
ISBN 0-89529-300-5
ISBN 0-89529-221-1 (pbk.)


 Copyright © 1985 by Edward Howell

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.



Foreword by Linda Clark, M.A
Introduction by Stephen Blauer 

Introduction to Enzyme Nutrition 
2     Food Enzymes Add Life
3     The Private Lives of Enzymes 
4     Two Important Discoveries 
5     The Fatal Process
6     Making Enzymes Work for You 
7     Little Known Facts About Raw Foods
8     Enzymes to the Rescue: The Mystique of Fasting
9     Taking Lipase to Heart 
Appendix A  Enzymes, Soil, and Agriculture
Appendix B  Research Contribution by
                    Maynard Murray, M.D. 
About Dr. Howell






Introduction to Enzyme Nutrition



   I adhere to the philosophy that both the living organism and its enzymes are inhabited by a vital principle or life energy which is separate and distinct from the caloric energy liberated from food by enzyme action. I would not like to think, when a person talks to me face to face, that it is the energy of the potato he has just digested that is producing his whimsical remarks and animated conversation. I prefer to believe that complex emotions, such as joy, sorrow, and anger, are powered by the same vital energy that the enzyme complex utilizes in metabolizing food—not by the caloric energy of a potato or other food. Emotions are capable of being expressed even in starving persons where there is no food in the body to supply caloric energy.

   I define the enzyme complex in biological rather than chemical terms. The enzyme complex harbors a protein carrier inhabited by a vital energy factor. For almost a hundred years chemistry has maintained that enzymes work by their mere presence, without being used up in the process. It has implied that the energy powering enzyme activity is derived, not from the enzymes, but solely from the substrate (the substance being changed or metabolized). If that is true, where does the energy come from to trigger or start the reaction before the energy of the substrate is released to become available? Chemistry concedes that only the living organism can make enzymes, but it implies it can do this without paying a price. Official chemistry maintains, at least by implication, that enzymes are mere chemical flunkies; that they are recklessly expendable. The Food Enzyme Concept holds that organisms endow enzymes with a vital activity factor that is exhaustible. Also that the capacity of a living organism to make enzymes—the enzyme potential—is limited and exhaustible.

   The chemical conception that enzymes work by their mere presence, without being used up in the process, is based upon the epochal work of O'Sullivan and Tompson on invertase, published in 1890. Nowhere in this work of almost a hundred pages do the authors state that enzymes work by their mere presence and are not used up in the process. O'Sullivan and Tompson took a tolerant attitude toward the definition of Roberts, Lumlian Lectures (1880), that the living body imparts a definite amount of vital force to enzymes, and that this force acts upon a substrate until it is exhausted.

   Enzymes represent the life element which is biologically recognized and can be measured in terms of enzyme activity. Our easiest measurement is a lack, for various chemical reactions fail to occur without enzymes: a radiated or cooked potato will fail to sprout. Thought of for years as catalysts, enzymes are much more than these inert substances. Catalysts work by chemical action only, while enzymes function by both biological and chemical action. Catalysts do not contain the "life element," which is measured as a kind of radiation which enzymes emit. This radiation cannot be measured simply by any ordinary device, but it can be demonstrated by biological means and other methods. The following are means of identifying this hidden entity: The Mitogenetic Rays of Gurwitsch, Kirlian Electro-Magnetic Photography, Rothen's Enzyme Action at a Distance, and Visual Micro Observation of Working Enzymes. Enzymes contain proteins and some contain vitamins which can and have been synthesized by chemists. However, the "life principle" or "activity factor" of the enzyme has never been synthesized. The proteins in enzymes serve merely as carriers of enzyme activity factors. We can summarize that enzymes are protein carriers charged with vital energy factors, just as your car battery consists of metal plates charged with electrical energy. The objectionable idea that enzymes are not exhaustible was coined by others later and ignores the biological evidence that is the topic of this book, Enzyme Nutrition.


   The human race is at least half sick. In a biological sense, there are no completely healthy people living on the conventional diet. Even those young adults who feel fit have health defects. Some have dental caries, thin hair, approaching baldness, acne or allergies, headaches, impaired vision, constipation, and so on, ad infinitum. And these are just superficial phenomena that the individuals can spot themselves. Medical examination finds more. How many ailments afflict the human race? One hundred? Five hundred? One thousand? Are we more expert in breeding disease than are wild animals? Can you name even one species of wild animal afflicted with a hundred diseases? Fifty? Twenty-five? Or even one? We must exclude "wild" animals that feast at our garbage dumps. To make themselves disease-proof, do wild animals perform some special ceremony we don't know about? We shall see.

   There are three classes of enzymes: metabolic enzymes, which run our bodies; digestive enzymes, which digest our food; and food enzymes from raw foods, which start food digestion. Our bodies—all our organs and tissues—are run by metabolic enzymes. These enzyme workers take proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (starches, sugars, etc.), and structure them into healthy bodies, keeping everything working properly. Every organ and tissue has its own particular metabolic enzymes to do specialized work. One authority made an investigation and found 98 distinct enzymes working in the arteries, each with a particular job to do. The liver has numerous different enzymes working. No one has ever investigated how many specific enzymes are needed to run the heart, brain, lungs, kidneys, etc.

   Since good health depends on all of these metabolic enzymes doing an excellent job, we must be sure that nothing interferes with the body making enough of them. A shortage could mean trouble, many times serious. Modern research is implicating enzymes in all of our activities. Even thinking involves some enzyme activity. In 1930, 80 enzymes were known; in 1947, 200; in 1957, 660; in 1962, 850; and by 1968, science had identified 1300 of them. If you wanted to find out how many enzymes are known today, you might have to hire a specialist full-time to make a survey. And although thousands of enzymes are known, many more reactions have been identified for which the enzymes responsible are not yet known. Hundreds of metabolic enzymes are necessary to carry on the work of the body—to repair damage and decay, and heal diseases.

   Digestive enzymes have only three main jobs: digesting protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Proteases are enzymes that digest protein; amylases digest carbohydrate, and Upases digest fat. Nature's plan calls for food enzymes to help with digestion instead of forcing the body's digestive enzymes to carry the whole load. If food enzymes do some of the work, according to the Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes, the enzyme potential can allot less activity to digestive enzymes, and have much more to give to the hundreds of metabolic enzymes that run the entire body. If food enzymes did some of the work, the enzyme potential would not be facing impending bankruptcy, as it is now in the bodies of millions of people on the minus diet—food minus its enzymes. Our enzyme potential has a problem somewhat similar to a checking account which could become dangerously deficient if not continually replenished.


   The Food Enzyme Concept introduces a new way of looking at disease. It heralds a revolution in our understanding of disease processes. According to the Food Enzyme Concept, enzymes possess biological, as well as chemical, properties. When ingested, the enzymes in raw food, or supplementary enzymes, result in a significant degree of digestion, lowering the drain on the organism's own enzyme potential. The heat used in cooking destroys all food enzymes and forces the organism to produce more enzymes, thus enlarging digestive organs, especially the pancreas. When an excessive amount of digestive enzymes is made, the enzyme potential may be unable to produce an adequate quantity of metabolic enzymes to repair body organs and fight disease. Are digestive enzymes being wasted? The Food Enzyme Concept furnishes conclusive proof that in most people digestive enzymes are being used up with reckless abandon. Although the body makes less than two dozen digestive enzymes, it uses up more of its enzyme potential supplying these than it uses to make the hundreds of metabolic enzymes needed to keep all of the organs and tissues functioning with their diversified activities. The digestive enzymes of civilized humans are infinitely stronger and more concentrated in enzyme activity than any of the metabolic enzymes—more concentrated than any other enzyme combination found in nature. Human saliva and pancreatic juice are loaded with enzyme activity. There is no evidence that wild animals, living on natural raw diets, have digestive enzyme juices even remotely approaching the strength of those found in civilized human beings.


   If the human organism must devote a huge portion of its enzyme potential to making digestive enzymes, it spells trouble for the whole body because there is a strain on production of metabolic enzymes and there may not be enough enzyme potential to go around. There is competition between the two classes of enzymes. Does science point a way out of this desperate situation? Yes. In 1943, the physiological laboratory of Northwestern University established the Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes by experiments on rats. The amount of digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to carbohydrate, protein, and fat was measured and it was found that the strength of each enzyme varied with the amount of each of these food materials it was called upon to digest. Prior to this it was assumed that enzymes were secreted in equal proportions, according to the rule laid down by Professor Babkin. The Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes holds that the organism values its enzymes highly and will make no more than are needed for the job. If some of the food is digested by enzymes in the food, the body will make less concentrated digestive enzymes. The Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes has since been confirmed by dozens of university laboratories throughout the world.

   If humans take in more exogenous (outside) digestive enzymes, as nature ordained, the enzyme potential will not have to waste so much of its heritage digesting food. It can distribute more of this precious commodity to the metabolic enzymes, where it rightfully belongs. This rightful distribution of enzyme energy will not only act to maintain health and prevent disease, but is expected to help cure established disease. The old saying that nature will cure really refers to metabolic enzyme activity, because there is no other mechanism in the body to cure anything.

   To get enzymes from food, one must eat raw food. All life, whether plant or animal, requires the presence of enzymes to keep it going. Therefore, all plant and animal food in the raw state has them. But the mere touch of heat destroys them. Enzymes tolerate no heat at all. They are different from vitamins in this respect. Pasteurization destroys the life force in them, even though much less heat is used than in cooking (145°F versus 300°F or higher). If water is hot enough to feel uncomfortable to the hand, it will injure enzymes in food. All foods from a food factory have been heat processed by one means or another.

Evidence of Enzyme Wastage

   We are guilty of being careless with enzymes. They are the most precious asset we possess and we should welcome outside enzyme help. If we depend solely upon the enzymes we inherit, they will be used up just like inherited money that is not supplemented by a steady income. The Food Enzyme Concept points out that acute wastage of large quantities of enzymes is strenuously objected to by the body. It can lead to serious illness and even death. In an experiment in 1944, young rats and chickens were fed a diet of raw soybeans (high in enzyme inhibitors) and huge quantities of pancreatic digestive enzymes were wasted in combating the inhibitors. The pancreas gland enlarged to handle the extra burden, and the animals sickened and failed to grow. Soybeans are seeds, and all seeds have some enzyme inhibitors. (Enzyme inhibitors are discussed in Chapter 7.) The early experiments, proving that organisms rebel against having their enzymes wasted, have now been repeated and amplified in dozens of scientific experimental laboratories. Eating the seeds and their inhibitors causes a great outpouring and wastage of pancreatic digestive enzymes, enlargement of the pancreas, decrease in the supply of metabolic enzymes, stunted growth, and impaired health.

   My organ weight tables, some of which are presented in this book (see pp. 81, 126), show that the size and weight of the pancreas varies with the type of diet. When the pancreas must process more enzymes, it enlarges. Is this wholesome for the individual? When the heart works too hard pumping blood through damaged arteries, it enlarges. Who wants an enlarged heart? Are enlarged tonsils something to desire? Or an enlarged thyroid gland, turning into a goiter? What about an enlarged liver? The everyday variety of enlarged pancreas is painless, not letting its owner know it is doing anything wrong, while indiscriminately handling the enzyme activity doled out to it and stressing the whole system. We are guilty of forcing our precious enzyme activity to do all of the menial work of digestion and then expect it also to do a perfect job on the metabolism. Food enzymes, and other exogenous enzymes, can help with digestion, but not with metabolism. Then why not let these helper-enzymes free our body's energy stores to more efficiently run the metabolism of the body?

   Animals such as cattle and sheep get along with a pancreas about a third as large as ours (figured as a percentage of the body weight) on their raw food diet. Laboratory mice, eating the standard laboratory chow diet of heat-processed, enzyme-free food, have a pancreas two to three times heavier than that of wild mice eating the enzyme diet of raw food they find in nature. When laboratory rats are put on an enzyme-rich diet of raw food, their pancreas gets only about one third as heavy as the same gland in rats fed a random diet, or one totally free of enzymes.

   The tremendous impact that wastage of body enzymes can have on health and even life itself is pointed out by experiments performed on animals. At Washington University, surgeons equipped a group of dogs with fistulae (tubes) designed to drain all of the pancreatic juice enzymes out of the body and waste them. Despite the animals' usual access to food and water, profound deterioration set in, and all of them died within a week. This experiment was later duplicated on rats by other research workers and the same sequence of events took place, with death following in less than a week. Acute human intestinal obstruction has been described as resulting in death within three to five days. Both in experimental intestinal obstruction in the dog, and in spontaneous human obstruction, authorities believe death is attributable to loss of pancreatic juice enzymes, caused by continuous vomiting. It is a remarkable fact that prolonged loss of bile through biliary fistulae, which prevent bile from entering the intestines, is not fatal in man or in laboratory animals, because no enzymes are wasted in this instance. The modern human digestive system makes extravagant demands on the enzyme potential. In this area man is in a class by himself, unlike all of nature's creatures in the wild. Indeed, only humans live on enzyme-free food. All wild creatures get their enzyme supplements in the raw food itself. Animals using raw food do not have the rich concentrations of enzyme activity in their digestive juices that humans do. Many animals have no enzymes at all in the saliva. But human saliva is loaded with a fantastically high concentration of the enzyme amylase, also known as ptyalin. Cattle and sheep secrete huge quantities of saliva entirely devoid of enzymes. The horse has no salivary enzymes on its natural raw diet. When dogs and cats eat their natural raw, carnivorous diet, there are no enzymes in the saliva. But when dogs are fed on a high carbohydrate, heat-treated diet, enzymes show up in the saliva within about a week, obeying the Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes.


   One would think that because ruminants such as cattle and sheep have no enzymes in the saliva, they would have an extra large concentration of enzymes in the pancreatic juice to make up for it. But this is not the case. My organ weight research has, in fact, disclosed that the pancreas of cattle and sheep is much smaller than ours, figured as a percentage of body weight. This shows that these animals get along with far less pancreatic enzymes than we. Cattle and sheep have four stomachs, only one of which secretes enzymes. And this one is the smallest. The other three, which are forestomachs, and which I have named food-enzyme stomachs, have no enzymes of their own, but allow enzymes of the food to digest it. In addition, the forestomachs of ruminants harbor protozoa, giving these tiny animals "free room and board" in exchange for use of the enzymes in digesting the food. It is a nice symbiotic relationship. As the digestion of a meal is advanced, most of the protozoa pass on into the fourth stomach where they are digested and supply a considerable portion of the protein requirements of the ruminants. This raises the question whether animals, such as cattle and sheep, are true vegetarians, since protozoa are animals, and their hosts depend on them for some of their nutrients.

   Besides the forestomachs of ruminants, a study of comparative anatomy furnishes other examples of what I have called the food-enzyme stomach. For years, physiologists were puzzled as to the function of these organs. The largest food-enzyme stomach in the world is owned by the whale, the first of three stomachs of this largest member of the Cetacea. The smaller cetaceans are dolphins and porpoises, which also have a food-enzyme stomach and two other stomachs. These food-enzyme stomachs are loaded up with enormous catches of aquatic prey. One killer whale was found to have 32 seals piled up in its food-enzyme stomach. It must be kept in mind that these food-enzyme stomachs secrete no enzymes or acid. How do you suppose this huge pile of whole animals can be broken down to a consistency small enough to pass through the small opening connecting the food-enzyme stomach to the second stomach without enzymes to do the job? Physiologists have also asked this question and several papers from physiologists in different countries have recently appeared in scientific literature trying to resolve this riddle.

   The Food Enzyme Concept is the only answer. Each of the 32 seals inside the whale has its own digestive enzymes in its stomach and pancreatic juices. When the whale swallows the seal, these digestive enzymes become the property of the whale. They are now its food enzymes and work for the benefit of the whale during the many days required to digest and empty the contents of the food-enzyme stomach. In addition, all animals have a proteolytic enzyme known as cathepsin, which is widely distributed in muscles and organs, yet has no known digestive function in life. After death, the body tissues become acidic, which is favorable for catheptic activity. This enzyme then functions as the prime factor in autolysis, the breakdown of cells and tissues.

   Another example of the food-enzyme stomach is the crop of birds using seeds as food, such as the chicken and pigeon. Physiologists had always stated that the crop has no known function, but that was before the Food Enzyme Concept brought together a consortium of facts to permit a new and more mature outlook. The crop has no enzymes of its own, but all seeds have a good inventory of them. It has been demonstrated that during the sojourn of 10 to 15 hours that intact seeds remain in the crop, they accumulate moisture; their enzymes multiply; there is incipient germination; enzyme inhibitors are neutralized, and starch is digested to dextrin and maltose. This digestion in the food-enzyme stomach (crop) by food enzymes is continued when the crop contents are emptied into the gizzard, and perhaps further along in the gastrointestinal tract. It becomes evident that in many animals, perhaps all, provision has been made for the digestion of food by food enzymes. Is the human being included?


   According to the Food Enzyme Concept, there is a mechanism operating in all creatures permitting food enzymes to digest a particular fraction of the food in which they are contained. In humans, the upper portion of the stomach is in fact a food-enzyme stomach. This part secretes no enzymes. It behaves the same as other food-enzyme stomachs. When raw food with its enzymes is eaten, it goes into this peristalsis-free food-enzyme section of our stomach where these food enzymes digest the food. In fact, the digestion of the protein, carbohydrate, and fat in raw food begins in the mouth at the very moment the plant cell walls are ruptured, releasing the food enzymes during the act of mastication. After swallowing, digestion continues in the food-enzyme section of the stomach for one-half to one hour, or until the rising tide of acidity reaches a point where it is inhibited. Then the stomach enzyme pepsin takes over.

   Once food is swallowed, it settles in a mass in the food-enzyme section of our stomachs. If it is cooked, enzyme-free food, it waits there for a period of one-half to one hour, during which time nothing happens to it. If harmful bacteria are swallowed with the food they may attack it during this time of enforced idleness. The salivary enzyme works on the carbohydrate, but the protein and fat must wait.

   Here is where proper enzyme digestive supplements fit in. Taken and chewed up with the meal, these exogenous digestive enzymes begin immediate digestion of all nutrients. They work on the protein, carbohydrate, and fat during the half-hour to hour period that these foods remain in the food-enzyme part of the stomach. According to the Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes, whatever digestion is accomplished by enzyme supplements or food enzymes does not have to be done by the digestive enzymes of the body. There is no further need for such rich digestive enzyme juices. This desirable reaction results in a conservation of the enzyme potential and body energy. It allows the body to devote its attention to supplying more metabolic enzymes for use by the organs and tissues to carry on their functions, provide repairs, and bring about cures.


   Let us check the Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes against research findings. Some people believe that the low pH of the human stomach stops most of the digestive activity of salivary, and, presumably, supplemental enzymes, because the pH (measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution) of human saliva is neutral (7). It can be seen, however, that salivary amylase does assist in digestion in the stomach, and that food and supplemental enzymes are even more effective.

   Olaf Bergeim, professor of physiology at Illinois College of Medicine, reported his research on gastric salivary digestion of starch with 12 dental students as subjects. Bergeim stressed that starch digestion cannot be studied in vitro (in the laboratory), but that the investigation must be done on specimens of material that have been removed from the living stomach after undergoing digestion. His results showed that an average of 76 percent of the starch of mashed potatoes, and 59 percent of the starch of bread was converted to maltose, and an additional percentage was changed to dextrose. Bergeim quoted Muller, who used rice cereal as a test meal on human subjects and found 59 to 80 percent of the carbohydrate was rendered soluble, and 50 to 77 percent of the starch in bread was made soluble when human subjects ate test meals. Professor Bergeim aspirated the digested food from the stomach after 45 minutes, but concluded that even 15 minutes in the stomach allowed time for significant digestion. The subjects were instructed to masticate the food thoroughly, which ensured initial digestion by saliva even before the food was swallowed. The professor explained experiments he made in vitro in which hydrochloric acid, a chemical present in stomach juices, was added to saliva and caused permanent inactivation. However, investigations by others have since shown that the average human secretions of hydrochloric acid are not as concentrated as was believed. This not only allows more stomach digestion to occur by salivary amylase and exogenous enzymes, but permits more reactivation of the enzymes after the stomach contents become neutralized in the alkaline duodenum. More recent experiments conducted in Europe in vivo (in the living organism) found that salivary amylase and supplemental enzymes were recovered in the duodenum and lower in the intestine, showing that supplemental enzymes and food enzymes may be reactivated by the juices of the intestine.

   Research by Dr. Beazell reported in the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 1941, and the American journal of Physiology, 1941, holds more information. Using 11 normal, young adult males, Beazell found that the human stomach digested several times more starch than protein at the end of an hour. Therefore he felt that the emphasis placed on the stomach as an organ for protein digestion is misplaced, because the stomach digests more starch than protein. Furthermore, if the salivary amylase can digest considerable starch at a pH no lower than 5 or 6, how much protein, fat, and starch can food enzymes or supplemental enzymes digest, since their range for activity extends down even below 3 in some instances?

   The foregoing evidence clearly establishes that a large quantity of starch is regularly digested in the human stomach by salivary amylase, even though it is not the ideal enzyme to work in the stomach. Where, then, do critics get the authority to state that food enzymes and supplemental enzymes do not digest food in the stomach? Reading such statements in textbooks is misleading. They may merely be the opinions of the authors, unless they are shown to be based on actual research work that is recorded in scientific periodical literature. What is to prevent food enzymes and supplemental enzymes, with better pH credentials than salivary amylase, from digesting even more protein, fat, and carbohydrate in the stomach?

   Work done at the laboratory of physiology at Northwestern University bears heavily on the quantity of supplemental enzymes passing through the stomach uninjured. In the Journal of Nutrition, A. C. Ivy, C. R. Schmitt, and J. M. Beazell showed by experiments on humans that an average of 51 percent of malt amylase, an enzyme produced by germinating barley, passed into the intestine in active form, after it had digested starch in the stomach. In human subjects, malt amylase augmented the digestion of starch when a deficiency of salivary secretion was simulated. It must be remembered that the subjects used were healthy, young males and not older adults deficient in salivary amylase. The Food Enzyme Concept holds that human digestive fluids have an unacceptably high enzyme content, much richer than those of wild creatures. There are indications that this anomaly may impede production of hundreds of specific metabolic enzymes needed for diverse metabolic chores. The digestive secretions of humans in the prime of life are pathologically rich, at the expense of metabolic enzymes. In a set of experiments on human subjects, it was found that the average strength of salivary amylase was 30 times higher in a group of younger adults than in a group of older adults.

   Dr. W. H. Taylor, University of Oxford, investigated the optimal pH at which the stomach digested protein in vitro. Surprisingly, he found not one, but two zones of maximal activity. One was pH 1.6 to 2.4, at which the enzyme pepsin is active. The other zone extended from pH 3.3 to 4.0, where cathepsin acts. It was found that the amount of protein digestion taking place at each zone was approximately equal. This meant that pepsin is not the only enzyme performing stomach digestion, but that cathepsin does an equal amount of work in digesting meat and vegetable proteins.

   Animal flesh and organs, particularly muscle meat, are amply provided with cathepsin. It is found in every pound of meat in the butcher shop. When a tiger or other carnivore tears off chunks of flesh from his prey and swallows them, the cathepsin within the meat itself is right at home, and lightens the burden of digestion for its counterpart in the warm confines of the stomach, because it operates at precisely the same pH. If it is conceded that there are no reasons why the food enzyme cathepsin should not engage in gastric digestion equally with the cathepsin secreted by the stomach, on what grounds should other food enzymes with like pH characteristics be disqualified from participating in gastric digestion? Gastric cathepsin and food cathepsin operate at pH 3 to 4. Amylases in wheat and other grains also function well at pH 3 to 4. Various vegetable proteases and lipases likewise operate in this range. How can these food enzymes be prevented from digesting food substrates in the human stomach, when nature has provided the ideal gastric pH environment for them to digest protein, carbohydrate, and fat?


   Raw food does not stimulate enzyme secretion as much as cooked food. Less stomach acid is secreted. This permits food enzymes to operate for a longer period in the food-enzyme section of the stomach than when the meal consists of cooked food. Consequently, more digestion is performed by food enzymes. When food enzymes, or other exogenous enzymes are permitted to do more work, this results in normalizing and lessening the strength of excessively high digestive enzyme secretions, such as pancreatic juice and saliva. Food enzymes are much less concentrated than pancreatic digestive enzymes. Digestion of a raw food meal takes more time. When a jungle lion finishes a meal, its stomach is full of large chunks of raw meat, perhaps 30 or more pounds. A period of stupor sets in, during which time cathepsin within the meat starts digesting it. Later, pepsin from the lion's stomach juice digests the meat chunks from the outside, while the food enzymes continue to digest them from within. Several days may pass before the job is completed. When a small snake swallows a frog, or when a large snake like a python swallows a pig, a big distention appears in the body of the snake in the area of the stomach, and the same events transpire. The cathepsin of the prey and its digestive enzymes now become the food enzymes of the snake host and work for its benefit. There is nothing to prevent the digestive enzymes of the prey from doing the same job in the stomach of their new owner as they did during life for the benefit of their former owner. It may require a week for the food enzymes, plus the snake's digestive enzymes, to digest the meal and make the distention disappear.

   Careful study shows that nature's creatures possess a food-enzyme stomach or its equivalent that allows their exclusively raw food diet to be predigested, relieving their digestive organs of excess work. Humans also possess a food-enzyme stomach which, as we have shown, is capable of relieving the digestive burden when food enzymes are included in the diet. In the chapters that follow, I will explain the role of food enzymes in health and show how we can harness their energy-giving properties for healing, greater health, and longer life. I will also cover their application in the treatment of various degenerative illnesses affecting mankind today.

About Dr. Howell

   Dr. Edward Howell was born in Chicago in 1898. He holds a limited medical license from the State of Illinois. (The holder of a limited practice license must pass the same Board Examination as a medical doctor. Only materia medica, obstetrics, and surgery are excluded.)

   In 1924, after obtaining his license, Dr. Howell joined the staff of the Lindlahr Sanitarium in Illinois, where he remained until 1930. He then established a private practice for the treatment of advanced illness utilizing nutritional and physical therapies. For the next 40 years until his retirement he spent three days each week with patients, while the balance of his time was devoted to various kinds of research.

   Dr. Howell is the true pioneer in his field, having been the first researcher to recognize and delineate the importance of the enzymes in food to human nutrition. In 1946 he wrote The Status of Food Enzymes in Digestion and Metabolism, which has recently been reprinted. He then took more than 20 years to complete Enzyme Nutrition, of which this book is a published abridgment. The original is approximately 700 pages long and contains over 700 references to the world's scientific literature.

   Dr. Howell, now eighty-seven, is presently living in Southwest Florida where he serves as Research Director for the Food Enzyme Research Foundation and continues his writing and research.