A person in possession of a clean, healthy, supple body as a result of natural living and treatment, is not nearly as likely to suffer injury from accidents or to develop chronic after effects resulting from them as one whose body has lost its natural elasticity, keenness of sensory organs and recuperative powers through unnatural habits of living and the resulting Pathogenic conditions. This is well known to physical examiners for accident insurance concerns. When a body is in a pathogenic condition, a slight scratch may be sufficient to cause serious blood poisoning or a bruise or fracture may result in necrosis or tumor formation.

    Natural methods of treatment are as efficient in giving first aid as in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, though it may be necessary in serious cases to procure without delay the aid of a surgeon or trained osteopath, chiropractor or neurotherapist in order to examine for internal injury or to correct sprains, dislocations, fractures or other mechanical lesions. However, any layperson possessed of ordinary intelligence and common sense can apply the first aid methods herein described.

    In many instances, natural treatment applied in time will greatly ameliorate the suffering and establish the best possible conditions for perfect recovery. The old time drug treatment which was held to be indispensable in cases of accident is as useless and harmful under these conditions as in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases. Much experience in all kinds of emergencies has convinced me that this is true.

    In case of an accident it is of primary importance not to become excited and thereby to lose presence of mind and self-control. It is only by remaining cool and relaxed that one can think clearly and decide quickly upon the best course to pursue.

    In first aid as well as in acute diseases the quickest and best results are obtained by hydropathic and manipulative treatment. It is, therefore, necessary for the student of emergency work to thoroughly study the methods and applications described under those headings. In order to facilitate quick and ready reference I shall treat the various occasions for first aid in alphabetical order.

   1. Alcoholism. Acute alcoholism may result in complete collapse and stupor. It has frequently happened that a person found in an insensible condition in a public place is mistaken for a drunkard in a stupefied condition, and carted off to a police station, when in reality he is suffering from injury, -a stroke of apoplexy, sunstroke, heat prostration or from some other serious physical disorder. In order to prevent such mistakes, which might easily result in the death of the sufferer through lack of proper care, it is necessary to smell the breath, which, in cases of alcoholism, will immediately tell the story.

   a) The best treatment for alcoholic stupor consists in brisk cold rubs, followed by good massage and neurotherapy treatment, calculated to stimulate and to revive the activity of the brain and nervous system. An enema of a Warm, normal salt solution is also very beneficial. When the patient revives, half a cup of black coffee with lemon juice will act as a mild heart stimulant.

   b) Delirium Tremens is a form of acute mania brought about through temporary paralysis of the brain centers which are the seat of reason, Will power and self control. The lower animal emotions are running amuck and in many such cases various forms and symptoms of abnormal psychism prevail. The horrible experiences and visions of people in this condition are not always delusions and hallucinations but frequently are the result of clairvoyance and clairaudience on the lowest spiritual or astral planes, the purgatories and hells of the theologians.

    The various phases of abnormal psychism are fully treated in Volume IV, Eugenics. This abnormal functioning of the sensory organs of the spiritual body is brought about through the temporary paralysis of the sensory organs of the physical body;

    In order to prevent complete collapse it may be necessary to give at increasing intervals and in decreasing doses, alcoholic liquor, coffee, tea or other light stimulants to revive and strengthen the animal magnetism of the physical body. Tincture of passiflora administered every two or three hours in from ten to twenty drop doses is a good non-poisonous vegetable tonic. Meat broth, Tartar sandwich and other flesh foods may be given until the patient has recovered from the abnormal psychic condition.

    The hydropathic treatment consists of cold rubs and cold douches, wet packs and cooling sitz baths. Massage and neurotherapy treatment is of great importance in such cases, not only for its mechanical but also for its electromagnetic effects.

    Epsom salt or sea salt rubs also have a positive magnetic effect upon the system. Hot bathing, bromides and other "sedative" measures only aggravate the condition because they have a weakening, benumbing effect. Those who apply such sedative remedies forget that delirium tremens and other maniacal conditions are the result of weakness, exhaustion, and of a benumbed and semi-paralyzed condition of the brain and nervous system, and that, therefore, tonic, energizing treatment is required instead of benumbing, sedative remedies and applications.

    When the patient has recovered from the effects of acute alcoholism he should undergo thorough systematic natural treatment in order to eradicate completely the craving for alcoholic stimulants. We have treated and permanently cured many victims of the drink habit who had undergone all sorts or drink cures without permanent results. As drug cures for the drink habit work on the principle of "poison kills poison". It is Beelzebub against the devil. While drugs may temporarily kill the craving for alcoholic liquors, the results thus obtained are not permanent. As the effects of the drug treatment pass off, the old craving returns and the drugs themselves have a weakening and deteriorating effect upon the system. Such Cures do not influence the moral nature.

    Natural treatment with its "back to Nature" life, its pure food diet, and Its educational influences through daily lectures and suggestive treatment, arouses higher ideals, strengthens will power and self control, and thus overcomes in a natural way the desire for alcoholic stimulants as well as habit creating drugs. It accomplishes this, not by the introduction of other poisons but by the purification of the organism and by the presentation of higher and purer ideals. One who, after such physical, mental and moral regeneration, has tasted the sweetness of the natural life will never again crave the gross deceptive gratification afforded by indulgence in alcoholic liquors and habit-forming drugs.

    Strict adherence to a natural regimen for three or four months will take away all desire for alcoholic or drug stimulation. Patients have confessed to me that they did not backslide on account of an irresistible craving, but through careless surrender to temptation. Self control must be strengthened by educating the moral nature. Antidotes. See Poisoning, no 26.

   2. Apoplexy. Apoplectic stroke and the resulting paralysis are caused by the breaking of one or more blood vessels in the brain. If the hemorrhage occurs in the right brain hemisphere, the left side of the body will be affected by paralysis on account of the crossing of the nerve tracts in the medulla and spinal cord. If the hemorrhage occurs in the left brain half, the right side will be affected. The extent of the paralysis depends upon the amount, of damage done to the brain centers in the area affected by the hemorrhage. The breathing is labored and stertorous, the face is flushed and purple in color, the features are twisted and drawn to one side, the pupils of the eyes are usually dilated.

   a) The head and shoulders should be slightly raised. Quick, cold salt rubs followed by stimulating manipulative treatment will draw the blood away from the brain into the surface and extremities. A lay-person can give the extremities and fleshy parts of the body a good, thorough kneading, rubbing and stroking, but a trained masseur or neurotherapist should be procured as quickly as possible to complete the treatment.

   b) Wet packs applied to the body and, the extremities will draw the blood away from the congested brain area. A warm normal salt enema (Sec. XVIII, No.4) will help to establish normal circulation. A hot mustard bath applied to the feet or, better still magnetic treatment (p.397) will divert the blood into the lower extremities.

   c) After consciousness has been restored, the patient must undergo thorough, systematic natural treatment in order to eliminate from the system the, pathogenic materials which have caused high blood pressure and the hardening and occlusion of the blood vessels in the brain and all through the body, and which brought about the hemorrhage and resulting paralysis. No alcoholic or drug stimulants should be given because they increase blood pressure to the brain.

   d) In cases of concussion of the brain, apoplectic stroke, or of hemorrhages from the lungs or stomach, the patient must not be transported in a vehicle because the jolting might aggravate the condition. The sufferer must be carefully carried on a stretcher.

    Of the many patients we have treated after a first apoplectic stroke, not one, as far as I can remember, has suffered from a second attack, provided of course there has been careful adherence to natural ways of living.

   3. Artificial Respiration In many kinds of accidents, such as drowning, strangulation, asphyxiation by poisonous gases, and in serious cases of fainting and stupor, it may be necessary to resort to artificial respiration in order to restore normal breathing. There are several good methods for this purpose.

   a) Quickly remove the clothing from the upper part of the body; lay the patient prone upon his stomach, place a small wad made of clothing or any other material at hand, under his forehead in order to elevate nose and mouth sufficiently to allow free breathing.

   The operator knees athwart the legs of the sufferer and places his spread hands on both sides of the small of the back and then exerts gentle but steady pressure, thus compressing the lower ribs and chest; he then gradually releases the pressure, allowing the lungs to fill with air. This alternating compression and relaxation of the chest must proceed at the same rate as the normal tempo of breathing, which is about fifteen breaths to the minute in adult life and a little more than this in childhood. With adults, therefore each complete movement in artificial respiration should consume about four seconds including expiration and inspiration, while in children it should consume about three seconds.

   b) The same method may be applied while the patient is lying on his back. Make a roll of clothing and shove it under the small of the back so that the head lies lower than the chest. Then kneel astride of the hips, place both hands, fingers spread as far as possible, on the lower ribs below the nipples of the breast and count slowly one, two, three, four; while counting one and two, compress the lower chest gently but firmly and relax the pressure while counting three and four. Continue this alternating compression and relaxation until normal breathing commences (provided life is not extinct). A sudden trembling and heaving of the chest and flushing of the face will indicate when natural breathing commences. While compressing the chest, the operator should at the same time apply strong vibration. This is accomplished by vibrating the hands loosely and vigorously from the wrist joint. The slow, regular counting corresponds to the tempo of regular normal breathing.

   c) (Fig. 25a, b, p.385) Another, more commonly applied method of artificial respiration, is the following: The patient lies upon his back; a small roll of clothing or other soft material is placed under the small of the back in order to raise the chest and to facilitate expiration. Inspiration is induced by raising the chest through bringing the arms above and back of the head; expiration is produced by returning the arms downward and in an outward, circular movement to the sides of the body, doubling them at the elbows and pressing the forearms on to the chest (Fig. 25 b). Compression must be followed by relaxation. This alternating compressing and releasing or raising of the chest should also be continued at the rate of fifteen complete movements to the minute for adults and twenty for children, or it may be regulated by counting as in the operation previously described.

    The first method (a) is to be favored because it prevents the falling back of the tongue into the throat and because it facilitates the escape of water, mucus or froth from the mouth. This is especially important in cases of drowning when the lungs are more or less filled with water.

   d) (Fig. 26) The best method for facilitating the escape of water from stomach and lungs is the following: Lay the victim prone upon his face, stand athwart his body, place your hands under his stomach and raise him at short intervals, thus partially doubling the body upon itself. This compresses the internal organs and facilitates the discharge of fluids through the mouth.

   4. Asphyxiation or suffocation is a condition of unconsciousness and insensibility resulting from suspended respiration. It is caused by a deficiency of oxygen in the system and an excess of carbon dioxide. This may be produced by strangulation, as in hanging, by smothering or internal obstruction, as in choking, drowning, or by the inhalation of smoke or poisonous gases.

    The treatment consists, first in artificial respiration described previously; and, secondly, in restoring the circulation of the blood and nerve currents. This is best accomplished through hydropathic and manipulative treatment described under acute alcoholism. The revival of an asphyxiated person may require long continued effort. Cases are known where by three or four hours of persistent effort, people have been revived after hanging or other forms of strangulation or suffocation.

   a) The victims of carbon dioxide asphyxiation die because this gas is heavier than oxygen and therefore does not allow this life-sustaining element to enter into the lungs and tissues of the body. A pulmotor may help to force the oxygen into the lungs and to expel the CO2.

   b) While rescuing a person from a room filled with smoke or poisonous gases, a wet handkerchief or other piece of wet cloth should be tied over the mouth and nostrils. Breathing should be restrained as much as possible. Care must be taken not to strike a match as it may explode the hydrogen gas. The windows should be opened or broken at once. This will enable the life-saver to take an occasional breath of fresh air while trying to find and to remove the victim of asphyxiation to the outer air.

   5. Bandages. When bandaging wounds, fractures or other bodily injuries, care must be taken not to apply the bandage too tightly. This might seriously interfere with the circulation, especially if swelling develops in the injured parts.

   a) Triangular Bandage. One of the most useful bandages in accidents is the triangular bandage. This may be prepared from any square piece of cloth by folding it diagonally in the shape of a triangle. Figures 27, 28 illustrate the application of the triangular bandage to a broken forearm Figure 29 illustrates other uses of this bandage. Fold a square piece of muslin or other material into triangular form and place against the body underneath the injured arm. Point A is drawn over the uninjured shoulder; point B is brought up over the injured arm and shoulder and knotted or tied to point A behind the neck.

   The projecting flap D is folded over the elbow and fastened with a safety pin. This supports the arm in a comfortable position.

    The inner surface of the hand must be turned inward and the thumb upward. Fig. 29 shows the application of the triangular bandage to injured hands and feet.

   b) Figure Eight Bandage. Fig. 30 illustrates the Figure Eight bandage applied to hand and foot. A long bandage, three or four inches wide is applied with its center to the injured part. The ends are then drawn crosswise around the wrist or ankle and knotted or pinned with safety pins.

   c) Roller Bandage Figures 31, 32 illustrate the application of the roller bandage. This bandage may be from a few feet to a few yards in length and of any width best suited for its purpose. The bandage is first rolled up either in a single roll or in two rolls from each end (Figs. 31, 32). The single roll bandage is rolled up from one end and applied by unrolling from one end. It should be applied by winding smoothly and evenly around the injured part, but this is possible only when the part is of even thickness. If the injured part is of uneven thickness, as in the case of an arm from the wrist upward or a leg from the ankle upward, the bandage in order to be applied smoothly and firmly must be reversed upon itself. This is done by placing the thumb upon the bandage where it is to be folded back upon itself, as illustrated in Fig. 31.

   d) Double Roll Bandage. The double roll bandage is applied with its center over the injured part; both ends cross in the back and are then wrapped around the part in opposite directions. (Fig. 32, no 5)c))

   e) The T Bandage has been described under Sec. XV, No.18.

   f) Head Bandage. Bandages suitable for injuries to the head or for holding in place compresses to the head are applied as shown in Fig. 33. One bandage is drawn over the head to point c and fastened under the chin at a. The other bandage, no 2, is drawn over the back of the head and the base of the skull, and fastened over the forehead.

   g) When the chin or lower jaw is injured, bandage (a), which supports the chin, is knotted on the top of the head. Bandage (b) is applied over the chin and knotted at the back of the neck. (Sec Fig. 34.)

   6. Bites by snakes, dogs, cats or by persons in an enraged or maniacal condition, should be sucked out immediately if they can be reached, by either the victim himself or by a friend. The mouth of the one who performs this operation must not contain wounds or abrasions and should be thoroughly cleansed with water after each withdrawal of blood. The wound, if necessary, should be widened by an incision and cleansed with dilute lemon juice. Immediately after this there should be applied a wet bandage or wet pack.

    The elimination of any possible infection must be promoted through fasting or raw food diet, manipulative treatment and all other natural methods described in this volume. Of special importance in this respect is the bed sweat bath followed by cold ablutions.

    In cases of snake bites, never administer whiskey or other alcoholic liquors, nor stimulating drugs. This is not only absolutely useless but decidedly harmful and dangerous. According to reliable statistics, less than eight per cent of people bitten by rattlesnakes or other poisonous reptiles die from the effects of the venom even though no whiskey is administered. On the other hand, many cases undoubtedly end fatally on account of the whiskey treatment. Excessive stimulation is always followed by corresponding depression and frequently by complete collapse. This is most likely to occur when large quantities of the fiery liquor are poured into people who are not accustomed to its effects.

   7. Bruises, Bumps and Contusions. These are treated best by the application of wet packs or clay packs. See Sections XV and XVI.

    While bruises and bumps do not bleed externally, the torn blood vessels may bleed internally and cause red or black discolorations. Such internal hemorrhage can be best arrested by firm pressure applied around the affected area; that is, by pressing some hollow object such as a spoon or a cup firmly around the bruise. The cooling packs or compresses will allay any tendency to inflammation or suppuration. Raw beefsteak applied to bruises acts in a manner similar to wet packs.

   8. Burns and Scalds. When the clothing is afire one should not run about excitedly, as this will only fan the flames to greater intensity. The best way to extinguish the fire is to throw oneself prone upon the ground and smother the flames by rolling. Rugs, blankets, pieces of clothing or any other material within reach may be used by the victim of the accident or by those who are trying to aid him, to smother and to extinguish the flames. Rolling on the floor prevents also the inhalation of the flames or smoke and the burning of face and hair.

    While removing the clothing from a body injured by burns or severe scalds, do not try to tear it off by force, but cut around the places where the clothing adheres to the flesh.

    The best treatment for burns and scalds consists in applying a mixture made of ordinary baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) and ordinary boiled oil (linseed oil) or olive oil. This simple remedy which can be procured in almost any household, is of wonderful efficacy in the healing of burns and scalds. It allays pain even in severe and extensive sores and prevents the formation of blisters while greatly facilitating the healing process. The alkaline sodium neutralizes the poisonous acids which form in the sores and the oil keeps the flesh in a softened condition and prevents caking and cracking.

    In cases of very extensive burns or scalds, immersion under water of body temperature or slightly below, has been found very beneficial. In such cases the patient may remain suspended under water in a hammock for days or weeks at a time until the sores are healed sufficiently to allow exposure to the air.

    Burning of the eyes and face by strong acids, fresh slaked lime, etc., is best treated by the immediate application of the olive oil and baking soda mixture.

    For the treatment of shock due to scalds or burns, see 'Shock".

    Carrying an unconscious person (see Transporting an Injured Person, p.417).

   9. Choking. Infants and children frequently choke as the result of swallowing small playthings or other foreign objects. Adults may choke from getting fish bones stuck in their throats or trying to swallow large pieces of meat.

    If the patient is a child, place him face downward over your lap, and slap him vigorously between the shoulders. If this does not remove the obstruction, then compress the nostrils, which forces him to open the mouth and throat widely, introduce the fingers of the other hand quickly into the throat and try to grasp the obstructing object. If this is not possible, tickle the palate with a feather, a finger, or with a handkerchief rolled to a point. The tickling will cause coughing or hawking which may dislodge the obstruction.

    An adult may throw himself over a chair or table, the head hanging downward, while another slaps him vigorously between the shoulders or, if necessary, performs the operations described in the previous paragraph.

   10. Convulsions. These are due either to congestion of the blood in the brain, to abnormal pressure of gas on the heart, or to excessive irritation of the brain or nervous system by toxic substances.

    The treatment must be adapted to the individual condition. Most of these have been described in Vol. V under Epilepsy, Uremia poisoning and other forms of diseases.

   a) For first aid the patient should be placed in a recumbent position with the head slightly raised. Alternating hot and cold fomentations are most effective for drawing the blood or irritating toxins from the affected area into the surface. The patient should sip hot water mixed with a little lemon juice. An enema of normal salt solution and of blood temperature should be administered as soon as possible. Wet packs applied to the neck, trunk or extremities will also draw the blood into the surface and thus relieve inner congestion and promote elimination of toxic substances. A full hot bath of body temperature of from ten to fifteen minutes duration may give quick results in serious attacks. This should be followed by a brisk cold saltwater rub.

   In convulsions of infants the body first becomes cold and rigid, then the skin breaks into a clammy perspiration, the pulse is weak and rapid. This is followed by convulsive movements and later by a semi-comatose condition which usually passes into a natural sleep.

    After the first aid measures herein described have given temporary relief the underlying causes must be overcome by natural methods of treatment

   b) Uremia convulsions frequently occur in the course of Bright's disease and of diseases which cause prolonged retention of the urine in the bladder In such cases it is imperative to increase the activity of the skin in order to compensate for lessened elimination through kidneys and bladder The best way to accomplish this is to apply the bed sweat bath described under Sec. XlV, No. 5, p.143.

    Sufficient hot water bags, bottles, or heated bricks must be placed outside of the whole body pack and under the outer blanket covering so as to produce free perspiration. The patient remains in the pack from fifteen t6 thirty minutes, as long as he can endure it

    After the removal of the pack he is quickly rubbed down with cold water, either in a bathtub, spray room or in bed. He is then covered well with blankets in order to induce free "after perspiration". This procedure is repeated as often as the patient can endure it and react to it properly. After the pack has been applied, the patient should drink freely of hot lemonade made with brown sugar or honey. This will promote free perspiration.

    Expert massage and neurotherapy treatment should be given to stimulate the circulation, to promote the elimination of morbid matter and to correct spinal or other mechanical lesions. Juniper berry tea (Sec. XIX, No. 5) will stimulate the activity of the kidneys. Fasting is imperative. It must be extended for days or weeks, according to the nature of the disease back of the convulsions. In cases of serious ailments such as Bright's disease, inflammation of the bladder, subacute and chronic prostatitis, the fasting must be followed by raw food diet for weeks or months at a time.

    Hot, normal salt enemas should be given to cleanse the lower intestines and to stimulate the vital activities.

    For treatment of Epileptic convulsions see No. 14, p.398, this Section.

   11. Cuts and Wounds. Small cuts or wounds should be thoroughly cleansed with warm or cold water and then treated with dilute lemon juice. Air and light are the best of all healers. It is injurious to close cuts with adhesive plaster, because it prevents elimination and shuts off air and light. However, in case of large wounds, the edges may be held together with narrow strips of adhesive tape just sufficient to keep the lips together for healing and to allow drainage. When the bleeding has stopped, the wound should be left uncovered if this can be done without exposing it to the pollution of impurities; or, the covering should consist of just enough porous gauze to protect it.

    If the wound should prove painful or become inflamed, frequent bathing in cold water or allowing a stream of cold water to run over it, is the best remedy. If the wound is large enough to cause serious or dangerous hemorrhage, appropriate treatment must be applied. For this see "Hemorrhages", No. 18 (a), page 402.

    Delirium Tremens. (See Alcoholism, p.379.)

   12. Disease, Sudden Onset of. The simplicity of the natural treatment enables us to apply the most efficient treatment at the sudden onset of any disease whatever. While the medical man has to wait for days arid sometimes for weeks before he can find out what the exact nature of the trouble is and apply his specific remedy, the natural therapist gives the most effective treatment from the first manifestation of symptoms. In that way he may be able to abort or to avert many serious diseases which might end fatally if neglected for a few days.

    At the first appearance of great weakness, of aches and pains in any part of the body, of increased temperature and quickening pulse rate, a normal salt enema (Sec. XVIII, No. 4, p.165,) of body temperature should be administered in order to thoroughly cleanse the lower intestine. This should be followed by a full sheet pack (Sec. XV. No. 7) or by a trunk pack or, if reaction is unsatisfactory, by a full sheet bed sweat bath (Sec. XIV, No. 5, p.143). (See also description in Uremic Poisoning, No. 10. (b) 4 p. 394.)

    Fasting must be enforced from the appearance of the first symptoms of malaise or acute inflammatory activity.

    If there are signs of poisoning or of severe inflammation of, the stomach and intestines, vomiting should be induced immediately by means of drinking copious quantities of lukewarm water, either pure or mixed with salt or mustard. If vomiting cannot be induced in this way, tickle the throat with a feather or piece of cloth drawn over a sliver of wood. After thus thoroughly cleansing the stomach, allow the patient to drink freely of water mixed with the juice of acid fruits.

    Neurotherapy treatment should be given at once to promote heat radiation, elimination of morbid matter, and to correct mechanical lesions.

    A few days of such natural treatment will suffice in most cases to restore the system to normal condition. If an acute disease should develop, it will run a much milder end safer course after prompt natural treatment, and the results obtained will be infinitely better than under the old time drug treatment.

    Carefully observe the following warnings, though you may find contradictory advice in books on naturopathic and physical and natural culture treatment: In acute conditions never apply hot water applications nor the ice pack; neither give cold water enemas. They are very dangerous, as they may suppress the inflammatory process and bring about fatal collapse. In cases of serious shock or collapse where the vitality is to low to react to cold applications, alternating hot and cold fomentations are in order, and the wet packs may be wrung out of hot water instead of cold water.

   If the hands and feet remain cold and bloodless the best remedy for bringing the blood to the extremities is good magnetic massage. After the manipulative treatment, firmly hold the hands of the patient or grasp the feet around the ankles and will the blood to flow into the extremities. The magnetic treatment must be continued until the hands or feet warm up.

    The hot bath or hot water bag treatment produces warmth temporarily but is followed, in accordance with the law of action and reaction by cold reaction; therefore the anemic condition of the extremities is only made worse by such hot applications.

    Drowning (See No. 3, pg 383)

   13. Ears, Foreign bodies in, locate the foreign body by using an ear speculum and head mirror. Turn the patient on the affected side and use a syringe from below, to straighten the canal, pull the outer ear up and back. In some cases forceps made of fine wire may be necessary. Living insects in the outer canal may he killed by the injection of alcohol or oil and then removed by syringing or by the wire loop. In cases of peas or beans, do not use water; it will make them swell. Use a wire loop or attach a strip of adhesive plaster to the foreign body and pull it out that way.

   Foreign bodies in the nose may be removed in a similar manner.

   14. Epileptic Convulsions. Nothing must be done to check or suppress the convulsion; this would be very injurious. All that can be done during an attack is to place the patient in a comfortable position and to elevate the head slightly. A neurotherapist should give firm inhibitory treatment over the upper cervical vertebrae and at the base of the skull. Immediately apply rectal dilatation.

    If the fit occurs in the house, the patient should be exposed to a draft of fresh air. Push the lower jaw forward so that the lower row of teeth projects over the upper. This will keep the windpipe open and prevent choking and suffocation. Push a piece of wood padded with a cloth, a cork or a rolled handkerchief between the teeth in order to prevent biting of the tongue. The opening of the clinched hands is useless.

    After the attack the patient should rest until its effects have worn off. The treatment for the cure of the disease must be administered between the attacks. Two-thirds of such cases that have come under our treatment made permanent recoveries.

    Exhaustion. (See Heat Exhaustion, p.401.)

   15. Eye Injuries. (a) Black eye. Caused by external injury, blows, etc. Natural treatment: Cold applications applied immediately will prevent discoloration and will alleviate inflammation.

    Burns. See treatment for burns, No. 8, p.391.

   b) Foreign bodies in the eyes, such as cinders, bits of sand, etc. These are usually found imbedded in the cornea or in the lid. Pull the lid outward and bend it backward over a toothpick, a match or other bit of wood, thus exposing the inner surface. Then remove the obstacle with a bit of cotton if it is imbedded in the lid; or if necessary with a toothpick or sharp instrument if it is located in the cornea. Treat inflammation with cold compresses and cold eye baths.

   c) Perforating Wounds. Perforating wounds of the eyes should be treated with cold compresses and cold eye bath. The patient must remain absolutely quiet and not expose the eyes to any strain whatever. If the sight is lost and symptoms of sympathetic inflammation appear in either eye, removal of the affected eye may become necessary, but this will seldom be the case if the cold compresses and the potato compress and cold ablutions are applied faithfully from the start (Sec. XV, Nos. 1, 4, pp. 147, 148). In any case of injury do not use vaseline, atropine or antiseptics.

   16. FaintingInsensibility. Find out first whether the unconscious one is alive and breathing. Hold a mirror, piece of glass, bright piece of metal or a feather before the mouth and nose. If the patient is still breathing, the bright surface will be dimmed by the breath, or the feather will move.

   a) The following is another test for determining whether life is extinct. Raise the eyelid and touch the white of the eye. If life is not extinct, the eyelid will twitch. Observe the odor of the breath. It will indicate such poisons as alcohol, chloroform, ether, etc. If the tongue has been bitten it indicates epilepsy. If the eyes are sensitive to touch and light, there is no brain injury. Unequal contraction of the pupils indicates brain trouble. Pupils contracted to pin points indicate opium poisoning. Slow, weak breathing indicates collapse or shock. Snoring or stertorous breathing and slow, weak pulse indicates brain trouble. Rapid pulse points to sunstroke. A hot skin and rapid pulse indicate sunstroke or high fever. Cold skin and weak pulse may be the result of fainting, freezing, or of acute alcoholism. High fever should be treated as described under treatment of acute diseases (Sec. VII {pg. 76, 77).

   b) If the patient is still breathing, place him in a comfortable position, the head somewhat lower than the rest of the body. Open or cut the clothing wherever it constricts the body, and expose the patient to a draft of fresh air, if in the open, fan the air, over his face.

   c) In order to stimulate heart action, apply, alternate hot and cold compresses to the chest; sprinkle or dash cold water over the face and neck; also apply alternate hot and cold fomentations to the, spine. Massage and apply passive movements to the extremities. If the, breathing is very slow and faint, apply artificial respiration (No 3. page 383). Dash cold water on the neck and on the soles of the feet. Give cold salt water rubs, all over the body. Administer a, warm normal salt enema (Sec. XVIII, No. 4, p.165,). Do not try to administer water or stimulants while the patient is unconscious; it would only choke him.

   d) When he revives do not give alcoholic liquors or other poisonous stimulants. The reaction might prove fatal. Give sips of fresh water mixed with acid fruit juices, or, black coffee or tea in small quantities; repeat until full consciousness has been restored.

   e) Try to find out what caused the unconscious condition. It may be the result of any one of the following causes: Fainting; collapse, shock, asphyxiation by gas; drowning or other means, acute alcoholism, opium, chloroform, ether or other drugs, sunstroke, apoplexy, epilepsy, convulsions, injury to the brain by concussion or fractured skull, or it may be caused by certain diseases of the heart stomach or kidneys. Treat accordingly.

   17. Fractures. In case of fracture, a physician or Surgeon, must be secured without delay. In the meantime excessive bleeding may be stopped as described under "Hemorrhages" (p.402). Swelling may be reduced by wet packs and cold ablutions.

   18. Freezing. Frozen limbs, ears, nose or other fleshy parts, of the, body should be, rubbed vigorously with ice water, or snow. Great care, however, must be taken not to break the frozen parts; they are brittle and may break easily.

    If a person has become unconscious through freezing, he must be taken into a cold room and treated with cold rubs by means of ice water or snow, until the circulation in the various parts is restored. As before stated, great Care must be taken not to break the frozen parts.

    If breathing and heart action are very low or imperceptible, artificial breathing, with due precautions, must be at once resorted to. The individual condition must determine the best method to be employed. When normal breathing commences, place the patient in a cold bed and heat the room very gradually.

    When the body becomes warm, rub with warm flannels, but the frozen parts must still be treated with cold applications and snow rubs.

    Warm the body from within by giving hot lemonade with brown, unrefined sugar or honey. Black coffee with lemon Juice will stimulate heart action and circulation.

    To drink alcoholic liquor in order to keep warm is extremely dangerous. The benumbing after effects of this and other strong stimulants will induce numbness and sleep when wakefulness is necessary to resist the freezing.

   19. Heat Exhaustion is usually the result of injudicious diet in summer, excessive clothing, and of working in close, hot, illy ventilated rooms. The principal symptoms are faintness or syncope; a cold and damp skin and a rapid and feeble pulse. When death results it is due to heart failure; but most cases recover. It is not as often fatal is sunstroke.

    a) The patient should be removed to a cool place. Hot lemonade will stimulate the heart action; a brisk, cold rub and wet packs, if necessary reinforced by hot water bottles will restore the activity of the skin. (See Bedsweat Bath, Sec. XIV, No. 5, p.143)

   b) Both in sunstroke and heat prostration the head should be frequently laved with cold water. If the body temperature is subnormal and death seems imminent, the legs should be wrapped in woolen blankets saturated with hot water. Care must be taken not to scald the flesh. Around the wet blanket wrap several layers of dry sheeting or a dry blanket in order to retain the heat. The patient should take at intervals small quantities of hot lemonade.

    Heat Prostration (See Heat Exhaustion, p.401.)

   20. Hemorrhages. (a) Hemorrhages from the mouth. When the blood is of dark color and looks as if it were mixed with coffee grounds or food materials it comes from the stomach and the hemorrhage is caused by cancer. If the blood is mixed with food materials but looks bright red, the hemorrhage is caused by ulcers of the stomach. If the hemorrhage is from the stomach, the patient should be placed in a recumbent position. A trunk pack will draw the blood away from the stomach and relieve congestion. The patient should sip at frequent intervals small quantities of cold water mixed with lemon juice, and should be allowed to rest.

   b) Hemorrhage from the Lungs. When the blood is bright red and foamy and free from food materials, it comes from the lungs and is caused by breakdown of the lung tissues. It is not necessarily directly fatal. Under natural treatment of lung diseases, hemorrhage frequently occurs during the crisis periods and is then a form of elimination. In many cases, recovery from tuberculosis has been preceded by copious hemorrhages. The patient should be kept in bed in order to give the disrupted tissue a chance to heal. The treatment must be directed to the underlying disease.

   c) Hemorrhages from Cuts and Wounds. If the blood is bright red and comes in spurts, it is an indication that some important artery has been severed and a ligature should be applied without delay above the wound. If on the trunk of the body, pressure should be made above the wound, between it and the heart. Any solid object, a piece of wood, rock or anything convenient, held in position firmly by a bandage or belt will serve the purpose. (Figs. 35, 36.)


    d) If the blood is dark in color and flows smoothly, then some vein has been opened and the ligature should be applied just below the wound. (Fig. 37) Any strap, rope or handkerchief may be used for this purpose, but a rubber hose, if it can be procured, is best suited on account of its elasticity. The ligature may be applied more tightly by inserting a stick, pipe or similar object below the knot and twisting it. (Fig, 35.)

    Do not try to remove any clots of blood; they are Nature's provision for stopping the hemorrhage. Hemorrhages from large arteries may be stopped temporarily by compressing the blood vessel with the fingers. In order to do this, one must know where to find the arteries.

    e) For an injury on the side of the upper part of the head, the temporal artery, must be Compressed with the thumb. This artery is located about three-quarters of an inch in front of the opening of the ear underneath the temporal bone. (Fig. 38)

If the injury is in the back of the head, the occipital artery must be compressed with the thumb. It is located about an inch from the center of the back of the ear. (Fig. 39) The facial arteries can be compressed by exerting strong pressure at a point one inch in front of the angle of the lower jaw. (Fig. 40.) The arteries pass over the jaw at these points. They should be pressed at the same time on both, sides.

    The common carotid artery can be reached at a point one and a half inches above the joint between the breastbone and the collar bone. Pressure may be exerted inward and backward. (Fig. 41.)

   The subclavian artery can be reached at a point behind the middle of the clavicle or collar bone where the hump of this bone is felt. First lower and draw the shoulder forward, then press downward and backward with the thumbs or with the fingertips of both hands. The pressure must be firm and persistent. (Fig 42.)

   The axillary artery can be compressed by first raising the arm, pressing it outward and backward, and then compressing the artery on the inner surface of the upper arm. (Fig. 43.)

   The brachial artery passes along the inner border of the biceps muscle. First extend or raise the arm, then press outward and backward. (Fig. 44.)

   The radial and ulnar arteries in the wrist may be compressed readily with the fingertips. (Fig. 45.)

    The great femoral artery in the upper leg can be reached best in the groin just in front of and a little inside of the femur bone. Compress with the thumbs or by using as many fingers as are needed.

   The popliteal artery can be reached by strong pressure in the central part of the ham, applied, while the patient is lying on his stomach, directly downward.

    The wounded part should be raised as high as possible.

    Cold water is very effective for stopping hemorrhages. If possible it should be allowed to run over the wound in a constant stream. This inhibits the circulation and favors the clotting of the blood. Care must be taken not to run the water directly on the wound as this might prevent the forming of clots. In order to accomplish this it may be well to place a cup or saucer or some other protecting object directly over the wound.

    Only boiled or aseptic bandages should be applied to the wound. Clay or mud must never be applied to open cuts or wounds. Water mixed with lemon juice applied directly to the wound acts as a natural antiseptic and astringent, thus favoring the clotting.

   21. Hiccough or Hiccup. This is a spasm of the diaphragm, caused by nervous irritation of some kind. It may be due to digestive disturbances or to irritation caused by systemic or drug poisons. In chronic form we find it frequently associated with mercurial, phosphorus, strychnine and other drug poisoning.

    Ordinary hiccough requires little or no special attention. If it persists, one of the best remedies is to continuously sip and swallow water until one or two of the spasms have been missed; anything that will break the regularity of the spasm will stop it. Out of this fact grew the old custom of "frightening the hiccough" by a sudden motion or exclamation.

    In its most serious forms, in cases of drug poisoning, we have always succeeded in alleviating and in most instances overcoming the spasms by the natural treatment. Certain neuropathic moves give excellent results.

    Insensibility. See "Fainting" No. 16, p.399.

   22. Lightning Stroke. If a stroke of lightning results in shock or collapse, treat as described under "Shock", p.414. If it results in burns, treat as described under "Burns and Scalds" (p.391).

   23. Mania, A sudden maniacal outbreak, whether the result of an attack of insanity, of acute alcoholism or of great emotional excitation, is best treated by cold applications such as cold sprays, cold sitz bath, hip bath, quick submergence under cold water, or by cold wet packs.

    Soothing manipulative and magnetic treatment is very effective.

    It is wrong to submerge such patients for hours or days in warm or hot water. Such sedative treatment is as weakening as opiates and hypnotics and will only aggravate the underlying conditions which are always negative in character.

    Such patients should have nothing but vitalizing, upbuilding treatment. Sedative drugs and long continued submersion in hot water will only aggravate the negative conditions and make the underlying ailments more chronic and incurable.

   24. Mental Disorders. At the first appearance of symptoms of mental disorder; the patient should be placed in an institution for natural healing, where surroundings and treatment are favorable for early recovery.

   25. Nose. (a) Foreign Bodies in. (See "Ears," p.397.)

    b) Nosebleed. Sniff cool water mixed with lemon juice. This has an astringent effect upon the capillaries. Compress the nostrils temporarily, throw the head backward, and avoid vigorous blowing of the nose. Apply told compresses to the neck at the base of the brain. Repose on a chair or couch, perfectly relaxed, in a sitting position and remain that way until the bleeding ceases. Refrain from any movement of the body. Have someone else catch the running blood in a basin or cloth. This is the best way to facilitate clotting of the blood.

    If this is not sufficient to stop the bleeding or if it should grow worse have small plugs of cotton or muslin inserted tightly into the nostrils. However, it must be remembered that the bleeding may be a form of elimination. It often occurs as a form of healing crisis and should, therefore, not be interfered with unless necessary to avoid excessive weakening and collapse.

   26. Poisoning. (a) The first thing to be attended to in any case of poisoning, whether or not the exact nature of it be known, is to empty the stomach. This may be accomplished by the swallowing of large quantities of Warm water containing the appropriate antidote, and by tickling the palate with the finger or a feather, thus causing copious vomiting. The washing of the Stomach must be repeated several times. If month and throat are not burned, a rubber tube may be pushed down the throat into the stomach. By means of a funnel, warm water is poured through the hose until it overflows. The end of the hose outside is then suddenly, lowered below the level of the stomach and water siphoned out of it. This may be facilitated by having the, patient assume a position prone upon the face during the draining of the stomach.

    b) In emergency cases, mustard, common salt or powdered alum may be given as emetics in proportion of one teaspoonful of either to a glass of water. A lukewarm solution of soap in water is a simple and efficacious emetic. If no emetics are available, cold water should be taken freely and vomiting induced by tickling the throat.

    After washing of the stomach, white of egg, milk, or sugared water should be given freely. They are soothing to the inflamed membranes and give the poisons something to work on. Blood warm enemas of normal salt solution (Sec. XVIII; No. 4. p.165) should be given repeatedly in order to eliminate the poison from the intestines. When the patient is strong enough bed sweat baths followed by cold ablutions will stimulate elimination through the skin.

   c) In corrosive sublimate or other forms of mercurial poisoning, retained rectal enemas of milk or white of, egg beaten up in warm water will help to neutralize the destructive action of the metallic poison.

    d) In all cases, fasting, with dilute fruit juices, should be enforced until the system has eliminated the poison and the injured membranes of the internal tracts have been repaired. Where the latter have been severely burned, fruit juices may cause burning pain unless they are very much diluted with water. In the mild dilute form, they will antidote the destructive effects of the poisons.

    e) So called antidotes are effective only when administered immediately. The general rule is, against acid Poisons administer water mixed with baking soda or fresh Lime; other good antidotes are white of egg, rich milk or oil. These substances neutralize the acids.

    f) Alkaline poisons must be antidoted with dilute vinegar, milk, white of egg and other albuminous substances which neutralize alkaline poisons as well as acid poisons by diluting them and giving them something to work on besides the tissues of the body.

    g) Narcotic poisons like opium, morphine, belladonna, digitalis, poisonous mushrooms, ptomains, alcohol strychnine, etc., cause loss of consciousness, stertorous breathing, redness of the face, cramps and delirium. If the victim of poisoning is unconscious, artificial breathing must be resorted to (No. 3, p. 383), and the neck, chest and other parts of the body should be sprinkled with cold water. A brisk, cold saltwater rub is very efficacious in reviving the vital activities. As a stimulant administer small doses of strong black coffee.

    h) Arsenic, phosphorus, Paris green, vitriol, carbolic acid, hydrochloric acid and lye do not as a rule cause unconsciousness, but give rise to violent pains in the oesophagus, stomach and abdomen, followed by choking and vomiting. Some of these poisons burn the lips, mouth, oesophagus and stomach; such burns may be treated with a solution of baking soda or powdered chalk. The treatment otherwise is the same as given for alkaline and acid poisoning.

    In cases of poisoning a physician should be called in as soon as possible.

   i) Ptomain poisoning results from eating putrefying or decayed meats, fish, cheese, ice cream or other animal food products. The usual symptoms are collapse, subnormal temperature and pain in the digestive tract. Nature generally tries to remedy the trouble by vomiting and diarrhoea. Both these forms of natural elimination must be encouraged by the swallowing of warm water in large quantities and by warm saltwater enemas. (Sec. XVIII, No. 4, p.165.)

    The treatment of ptomain poisoning is very much the same as that of other forms of poisoning. The stomach and intestines must be emptied and cleansed as thoroughly as possible by induced vomiting and by saltwater enemas, as described in the previous paragraphs. After that, the patient should drink copious quantities of fresh water mixed with acid fruit juices. This is much better than the taking of poisonous antiseptics.

    While the temperature is subnormal, the bed sweat bath by means of the trunk pack or full sheet pack will promote elimination through the skin. When the subnormal condition is followed by inflammation and fever, cold packs and ablutions are in order and the treatment in general is the same as that for acute inflammatory conditions described under Sec. VII; p.75.

    j) External Poisons. Poisons which affect the human body from the outside include poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Poisoning by insects, snakes and rabid animals has been treated under other headings.

    Poison ivy and the other poisonous plants above named owe their toxic qualities to an odourless, transparent oil found on the leaves, bark and twigs, which is insoluble in water. These poisons are powerful irritants. Contact of the skin with these poison plants causes insufferable itching, swelling and vesicular eruptions. In severe cases there may be vomiting, colicy pains, fever and delirium. Parts of the body or the entire cutaneous surface may be covered with eruptions.

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends the application of a solution of acetate of lead to be applied to the itching skin. This, however, is a powerful suppressant. While the eruption disappears rapidly under this treatment, it drives the plant poison plus the drug poisons into the system, and wherever these concentrate the morbid soil is prepared for chronic disease.

   The poison in its outward symptoms, as Well as its internal chronic after effects, resembles very closely the psora or itch taint. Its suppression in the acute stages broadens the scurf rim and frequently produces typical itch spots in the iris.

    The best homeopathic antidotes in acute and chronic cases are Rhus tox., psorinum or sulphur. The homeopathic rhustoxicana is a trituration of the ivy poison.

    The Natural Treatment. First it must be remembered that the itchy, burning eruptions represent Nature's, effort to eliminate the poisons from the system and that therefore it should not be checked or suppressed by any means whatever. The natural treatment includes, everything that will promote elimination of the poison through the skin and other organs of depuration. If water is immediately accessible, a good, thorough scrubbing of the skin with soap and water, or, if in the open, with sand, tufts of grass, or any other, scrubbing material may be sufficient to remove the poison before it will do any harm; at any rate it will greatly reduce the bad effects.

    The preliminary cleansing should be followed as soon as possible by a whole sheet pack or a bed sweat bath, and cold Ablutions. This may be repeated several times if necessary, or followed by partial packs. Otherwise, the treatment is the same as for acute diseases. (Sec. VIII) Fasting and raw food diet are especially beneficial. The cold packs, compresses and ablutions are the best means for allaying the intolerable itching and burning.

   k) Antidotes for Acute Poisoning

   By Lead: magnesia, soda or chalk water.

   By phosphorus: thick liquid gum; white of egg; flour; bread magnesia and cold water, for the purpose of enveloping and isolating the poison. Do not give milk or liquids containing alcohol or oily matter.

   By caustic acids, such as sulphuric, muriatic, carbolic or nitric acid: large quantities of soap, salt, chalk, limewater or milk.

   By copper and verdigris, frequently contracted by foods or drinks prepared in copper vessels or by drinks from soda water fountains when the copper has become exposed through the away of the zinc lining: dilute white of egg; milk; water mixed with honey or sugar.

  By Iodin: starch or flour paste.

   By nitrate of silver: strong saltwater solution; white of egg.

   By oxalic acid: chalk or lime water.

   By strychnine: meat burned to a cinder; decoction of acorn coffee; tan or gall apple.

   By arsenic: warm milk; sweetened water.

   Scalds. (See Burns p.391)

   27. Seasickness. The unpleasant sensations accompanying this disorder are undoubtedly caused by a disturbance of the center of equilibrium in close proximity to the, left ear, which in turn affects the entire nervous organism and especially the nerves supplying the digestive organs; causing intense nausea and vomiting.

    So far no effective remedy has been discovered for this peculiar disorder. The following directions have in many instances either prevented or greatly alleviated its Symptoms.

    Those who intend to travel on the sea should prepare themselves by a brief fast and light raw food diet. This should be continued on board ship. The heavy, rich, greasy foods served in overabundance on board of seagoing vessels undoubtedly have much to do with bringing on the gastric disturbance. The invigorating effects of a sea voyage might be greatly enhanced by a prolonged fast beginning a day or two before taking passage and extending for a week or more, according to the vitality and recuperative powers of the individual.

    The best remedy, aside from these dietetic measures) and according to my experience the most efficient, is getting into harmony with the motion of the vessel or car. Many times outside patients have come to me saying they could not continue coming for treatment because the benefits were offset by nausea and vomiting caused by the shaking of the cars. I have instructed the sufferers from ear sickness as follows:

    Instead of tensing yourself physically and mentally against the violent vibrations caused by the rolling of the vessel or car, relax completely. Do not oppose and fight the motions but let yourself go with them. A good way to do this is to hum a tune in harmony with the oscillating motion of the ship or car.

    In many instances the very first trial of my remedy has given relief and after a few attempts no discomfort whatever was experienced. Those who are naturally immune to car or seasickness probably practice this form of relaxation and rhythmic adjustment unconsciously.

    It is another proof of the truth and practicability of the maxim of the Master, "Resist not evil". Those who most fear this form of evil and tense themselves against it are most affected by it, While the person who thoroughly enjoys sea travel and to whom the rolling of the vessel is a pleasure naturally relaxes to it, enjoys the sensation, and therefore feels no discomfort.

   28. Shock is characterized by collapse and frequently by loss of consciousness. It may result from excessive loss of blood or physical injury, or it may be caused by emotional depression resulting from mental and nervous excitation such as sudden fright, grief, anxiety or anger. In many instances it is the shock rather than the actual physical injury which causes death.

    If the collapse is due to haemorrhage, this must be stopped as quickly as possible (see p.402). Cool behaviour and reassuring suggestions arc necessary to dispel fear and anxiety. The same tonic treatment must be administered as described under fainting, unconsciousness, etc., p.399.

   Signs of Life. (See "Fainting", p.399.)

   Snake Bites. (See "Bites", etc., p. 390.)

   29. Sprains, Strains and Dislocations. Sprains and dislocations of joints must be attended to as quickly as possible by a competent physician, preferably a neurotherapist, osteopath or chiropractor. If, however, a physician is not immediately available and the injury results in swelling, then cold packs must be applied to reduce the inflammation and to facilitate the adjustment.

    If swelling, or pain, make it impossible to remove parts of the clothing or the shoes and stockings, these should be cut away with a sharp knife. The affected part must have absolute rest before and after the adjustment. Do not apply hot applications of any kind.

   30. Sunburns, which are frequently the result of imprudent exposure in the sun-baths, are best treated by cold compresses and cold ablutions or by the olive oil and soda mixture.

   31. Sunstroke. Sunstroke is caused by exposure to the direct rays of the sun in a heated atmosphere. Loss of consciousness is caused by the direct action of the sun's rays upon the brain and the cardiac and respiratory centers in the medulla.

    a) The onset is sudden. The most prominent symptoms are unconsciousness, pallor, feeble pulse and rapid failure of the heart and respiration. Death is common, recovery often only partial, leaving the brain permanently injured.

    b) Under the natural treatment few cases end fatally. The patient should be quickly undressed and cold water poured all over his body, also over the head. This should be followed by brisk salt water rubs; or the body should be wrapped in a wet sheet which must be kept wet by pouring cold water over it from time to time.

    If collapse has taken place and vitality is greatly depressed, the patient must be put to bed and well covered with blankets so as to produce a warm reaction.

   32. Thermic Fever may arise by night or by day through exposure to artificial or solar heat.

    Premonitory symptoms are malaise, nausea, diarrhea, giddiness, sleeplessness, after which the temperature rises quickly to 108 to 110 deg F. or even higher. Prominent symptoms are lividity of the face, dispnoea and delirium. These are often followed by coma and death within a few hours. It recovery takes place it is slow and incomplete.

    Cold, wet packs, followed by cold ablutions, must be applied. The drinking water should be cool and mixed with acid fruit juices. (See the usual treatment for acute diseases, Sec. VIII.) Under natural treatment few cases end fatally.

   Toothache. See Section XLIII, No.8, p.430.

   33. Transporting an Injured Person. To lift or carry an injured person in the wrong way may cause permanent injury or even death; therefore, care fully examine the victim of an accident in order to ascertain whether he has sustained a fracture or serious internal injury.

    First aid should be administered at once and on the spot; but if removal is necessary, a stretcher may be improvised out of a board, a door, bedspring, or anything else convenient for the purpose (Fig. 49, p.418). Care must be exercised not to drop the injured one. If a patient must be transported by carrying, the following methods will be found practical:

    a) If the injured one can walk, let him put his sound arm around your neck and with one hand grasp his hand hanging down from your shoulder and with your other arm firmly support his body. (Fig. 46).

    If the patient is unconscious, the following methods will be found most convenient:

    b) You may carry the patient in an upright position, placing your right shoulder under his armpit and your right arm around his waist, his left arm back of your own neck and over your shoulder, taking hold of his left wrist with your left hand. In this way you can either help him walk, as previously described, or carry him entirely. (Fig. 46)

    c) If an adult person is unconscious and requires immediate removal, it would be impossible for one person to carry him in his arms. In such an emergency, the pick-a-back method is the most practical. Stoop down and place the patient well up on your back; then pass your right arm around his right knee and with the other hand grasp firmly the wrist of his right hand drawn over your left shoulder. In this way he is in a safe position to be carried for a considerable distance and the weight is fairly distributed and balanced over your back and shoulders.

    d) The third method of carrying an unconscious person is similar to (c), the only difference being that your right hand after passing around the upper part of the right leg of the patient, grasps his right wrist, drawing his right arm over your left shoulder and firmly across your chest, as illustrated in Fig. 47 above. This position leaves your left arm free for other employment, if desired.

    e) If two persons are available for transportation they may support the injured one on their locked hands, while he places his arms about the necks of his carriers. (Fig. 48)

      f) Fig. 49, illustrates an improvised stretcher. Two poles have been slipped through the sleeves and body of two buttoned coats. Other improvisations may be made by means of a board, door, shutter, mattress, etc.

   Unconsciousness—See "Fainting," No. 16, p.399.




   1. Disease of the teeth generally speaking, is the result of two causes: First, malnutrition, which causes deterioration and destruction of the teeth from within; second, corrosion, caused by systemic acids and other corroding substances which attack, from without, the enamel of the crown and the hard covering of the neck and roots.

    Dentists and books on hygiene deal almost exclusively with the last named factor. They have a great deal to say about the regular and thorough cleansing of the teeth, and of dental treatment, but seldom mention the influence of food materials, nutrition and constitutional disease on the condition of the teeth.

    That this is not as it should be is proved by the fact that animals living on natural food, as well as savage races, and people who live in primitive surroundings and subsist largely on products of the soil not demineralized and devitalized by modem manufacturing processes, have splendid teeth and retain them to the end of life without tooth brush, dentifrice or the attention of a dentist.

    The teeth of animals and humans who live on natural food well adapted to their needs, gradually wear off to the gums with advancing age but do not decay or fall out; neither are they troubled with abscesses, pyorrhea or other diseases produced by unnatural and artificial ways of living.

    Regular examinations of children in our public schools disclose the fact that in spite of tooth hygiene taught in the schools and enforced in the homes, eighty-five percent or more are suffering from defective teeth. Of 1694 children examined in six clinics during the year 1913 by Dr. A. F. Foot, only eleven were found to possess normal teeth. Dr. Foot reported to the Second District Dental Society of New York as follows.

    "The six-year molars of nearly every child were broken down wholly or in part. In many instances the molars were decayed to the gums. So extensive and far advanced were the defects that corrective treatment, even if it were applied, would have been of little value."

   2. This almost universal decay of the teeth is caused:

  1. by wrong food combinations;
  2. by devitalized and demineralized food;
  3. by the action of corrosive substances from within and without;
  4. by the softness of the food materials and by their excessive heat and coldness;
  5. by hereditary and congenital influences.

   Examining these pathogenic factors separately we find that the ordinary diet customary in the home, hotel, restaurant and boarding house, consisting almost entirely of cooked foods, is excessively rich in starches, sugars, fats and proteins, but very deficient in the mineral salts. This is true of these foods even in their natural condition, as they come from the soil; but the discrepancy between negative food elements and positive mineral elements is much greater after the cereals rice, sugarcane sap and beet sap have passed through the modem milling and refining processes. These leave the white flour, polished rice, decorticated corn products, pearled barley, corn starch, white sugar and corn syrup in a devitalized and demineralized condition. Together with the all-important mineral elements, the foods have been robbed also of their vitamins or life elements. What little is left of the vitamins is destroyed and dissipated by boiling, roasting, frying or fermenting.

    Unnatural food combinations, which predominate in acid and pathogen producing negative food substances and are very deficient in the acid neutralizing and eliminating mineral elements or alkaline bases, produce excessive amounts of acids, ptomains, leukomains, xanthins and other pathogenic substances which corrode and tear down the outer enamel covering and internal dentine structure of the teeth.

    The destructive effect of acids upon bone tissue can readily be demonstrated by submerging a piece of bone in hydrochloric acid. Within a few days the lime salts constituting the solid framework will be dissolved and abstracted, nothing being left but a soft cartilaginous and gelatinous mass. Submerge an eggshell in strong vinegar; within a few days it will be completely dissolved. In similar manner, acids in the blood and mouth fluids, and acids which form in decaying matter clinging to the teeth and in the hollow spaces between them, will gradually destroy the enamel and dentine.

    Refined sugars act very much as do acids. Having been robbed in the refinery of their positive mineral elements, the remaining negative elements, hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, by chemical affinity leech the minerals from the bones and tissues, thus causing gradual decay.

    The sturdy Scots owe their tall and large boned bodies to the highly mineralized cereal, fruit and vegetable products of their mountain valleys, the soil of which is enriched every season by the mineral wash from the rocky hillsides.

    As long as they lived on whole meal barley bread and oatmeal porridge made from homegrown and home milled cereals, they had splendid teeth. During the last few generations, however, since they commenced to abandon their primitive foods for white bread, white sugar and devitalized breakfast foods, dentists have become more numerous among them.

   3. Gingivitis and Pyorrhea. These ailments are so injurious, not only to the teeth, but also to the general health of the body, and they are increasing in frequency with such alarming rapidity that they deserve special attention.

    Allopathic medical science declares that gingivitis and pyorrhea, like all other inflammatory diseases, are caused by germs, and has vainly tried to cure these common ailments by the application of antiseptics and germ killers. We find that as usual the germs are secondary effects, that we must look for the true causes in other directions. These are:

    1) Lack of exercise for the teeth and the connective tissues which hold them in place.

    2) Inflammation of the gums, caused by hyperacidity of the system and other pathogenic conditions.

    3) The corroding action of mineral deposits on the teeth.

    Dr. Robert Aiston, a prominent Chicago dentist, who for twenty years has made pyorrhea a special study, says he is positive that lack of exercise for the teeth and the connective tissues which hold them in place, is the principal cause of pyorrhea.

    In an interview I had with him lately on the subject, he said: "No man living has made a more exhaustive study of pyorrhea than I have, and I am convinced that the principal cause is the predominance of soft, mushy, cooked food in the customary diet of our American people."

    The reasons with which he backs his opinions are very convincing. I shall condense them in the following paragraphs.

    The roots of the teeth are held in place by ligamentous tissues and these remain strong and sound as long as they are subjected to normal strain from the push and pull exerted by vigorous mastication. When this ceases, as a result of the continuous consumption of soft, cooked foods, then the dental ligaments and other connective tissues begin to weaken and decay. Stagnation and putrefaction set up inflammation, this produces inflammatory exudates rich in calcareous salts and these in turn form seruminal calculi on the roots of the teeth, so called because these mineral encrustation's are precipitated from the blood serum. The doctor showed me a number of teeth which were thickly covered with these rough, earthy deposits.

    I fully agree with Dr. Aiston that local stagnation, due to lack of exercise, is one of the primary causes of inflammation and destruction of the dental ligaments, but I believe that this is greatly facilitated and aggravated by pathogenic materials and disease taints in the circulation, and in the very beginning by mineral encrustation's on the surface of the teeth.

    Elsewhere I have mentioned that in several cases pyorrhea entirely disappeared after the patients had been cured, by natural methods, of smallpox, gonorrhea, syphilis and other acute, eliminative diseases. Healing crises eliminated the disease taints; raw food diet reduced the "calcareous exudates" and scoured the teeth of slimy and earthy deposits. In this connection I should mention that after the adoption of a raw food diet mineral deposits on the teeth at first increase. This is caused by the neutralization of large amounts of acids. But as the acidity, under the influence of alkaline diet, diminishes, mineral precipitation ceases, inflammation subsides, the encrustation's on the teeth are gradually absorbed and the gums have a chance to heal.

    Pyorrhea, as well as other chronic ailments, can be cured only by restoring the entire organism to a clean, normal condition.

   Gingivitis. The mineral deposits on the crowns of the teeth, usually light, gray in color, are commonly called tartar. Dentists speak of them as salivary calculi, because they are formed by earthy precipitates from the saliva. These tartar deposits may encroach under the borders of the gums, and this, together with slimy, mucoid accumulations, gives rise to inflammatory, destructive processes in the gum tissues. This is commonly called gingivitis. It is the forerunner of pyorrhea. The only difference between the two ailments is that in pyorrhea the mineral deposits form on the necks and roots of the teeth, and that these seruminal calculi, are blacker, harder and more destructive than the tartar on the crowns. The sharp earthy crystals help to corrode the dental ligaments, aggravate the inflammatory processes, and thus in turn increase the inflammatory exudate of calcareous matter. Filthy, putrefying matter could not accumulate around the teeth and under the gums if the food contained sufficient coarse, scouring material.

    Thus it will be seen that the two causes, stagnation due to lack of exercise, and mineral precipitation due to hyperacidity of the system, seesaw in the causation of gingivitis and pyorrhea.

 The Rational Treatment of Gingivitis and Pyorrhea

    It is well enough to scrape from the teeth the earthy encrustation's which cause the gums to recede and to putrefy, but what good does this when the hyperacid condition of the system makes new deposits?

    Many people have the idea that they can safely eat meat, eggs and large amounts of starchy foods as long as they consume with them plenty of the mineral salt foods, such as fruits and vegetables. As explained in Vol. I of this series, in Chapter XXIX, this is a mistake. The intake of too much starchy and protein food leads to the excessive production of acids and other pathogenic substances. Though these are neutralized by alkaline mineral elements, more earthy salts are thus formed than can be properly eliminated through the skin and kidneys. These salts collect on the teeth as tartar, or they may form deposits in the joints resulting in rheumatism.

   4. In order to prevent these and a host of other acid diseases, it is not enough to adopt a vegetarian diet, but the intake of vegetables, starches and proteids must be kept within normal limits. How to accomplish this I have explained under the heading of food combinations in Section 1, No. 10, pp. 23, 24.

    Normal consistency of the food also has much to do with the preservation of the teeth. The perfect condition of the teeth of wild animals and of primitive man is partly due to the fact that they consume their foods in the natural raw condition, thus giving the teeth plenty of wholesome exercise by the gnawing, grinding and crunching of bones, grasses, raw cereals, fruits and nuts. While savage or primitive people cook some of their food, they use much more raw food than do their civilized cousins.

    Cooked food, in which most of the vitamins have been destroyed, is much more prone to acid formation than live, raw food. Physicians and dentists frequently warn against acid and sub acid fruits "because they destroy the enamel of the teeth." This is a mistake. The live organic acids of fruits and vegetables, charged with vitamins, have not a destructive effect upon the bony structures as do the disease producing acids formed by abnormal food combinations and putrefactive processes. The malic and citric acids of the fruits are highly organized and help to dissolve the earthy deposits in the joints, and the tartar on the teeth. (See footnote page 434.)

    Unless the diet contains liberal proportions of raw vegetables, fruits, roots and nuts, which are splendid natural scourers and cleansers, the teeth are bound to deteriorate and decay.

    Even the teeth of cows become loose and fall out when the animals are fed continually on the soft, sloppy, devitalized and demineralized cereal offal of breweries and distilleries.

    To begin the day and to end it with the munching of an apple or some other raw fruit or vegetable relish, is the best way to keep the teeth in a perfectly clean and sound condition.

    Another reason why dentistry in civilized countries is one of the best paying professions, is the habit of swallowing food and drink, either very hot or extremely cold. Not infrequently the piping hot soups and other viands are washed down with ice water or immediately followed by ice cream, sherbet or other chilled desserts.

    The sudden expansion and contraction due to contact with excessive heat or cold causes the enamel to crack and thus exposes the dentine of the teeth to the destructive activity of acids and other corroding substances.

    When prospective parents have destroyed their teeth by unnatural practices, how can they expect to produce offspring with sound bones and teeth? When the blood of the mother is utterly deficient in the bone building mineral elements, is it any wonder that the new born comes into the world handicapped for life with a dwarfed, defective bony framework? The formation of tooth substance begins in the embryo after the sixth week and continues all through gestation. This further reveals how important it is that the food of the mother contain sufficient amounts of the bone and teeth making elements. This is possible only when her diet includes an abundant supply of fruits and vegetables, hulls of grains and other mineral salt foods; classified under Group V of the food Table, page 33.

    I have observed in many instances that when the prenatal structure and chemical composition of the teeth is abnormal, natural feeding after birth cannot always make good for the defective foundation. An imperfect, cankered Seed will not produce a perfect tree, even though the soil it grows in contains abundant nourishment.

   5. Cleaning the Teeth. By the foregoing I do not wish to depreciate the importance of keeping the teeth in a clean and sweet condition by careful scrubbing several times a day, particularly in the morning and before retiring. If convenient it should be done after every meal.

    However, we do not favor for this purpose the use of preparations containing poisonous antiseptics. These are readily absorbed by the tender tissues of the mouth and in time will cause trouble in the body. Practically all tooth powders, pastes and lotions sold in the drug stores contain such deleterious substances. These are not only decidedly harmful, but entirely superfluous because the best tooth wash is fresh, cool water made slightly acid with lemon juice. Brisk scrubbings of the teeth with this natural dentifrice will keep the gums and teeth in clean and sweet condition. This should be followed by rinsing the mouth with fresh water. The scrubbing should be done from above downward and from below upwards. This will tend to pull the gums over the teeth and to cleanse the crevices between the teeth from food particles and slimy accumulations.

    Another good treatment is to dip the forefinger into cold water and give the gums, inside and outside, a good rubbing and kneading. Always finish by rinsing the mouth thoroughly with water as cool as the gums will endure.

    If there is a tendency to the formation of tartar the teeth may be thoroughly scoured a few times a week with ground pumice stone, whiting or oyster shell, but this must not be repeated too often because it might injure the enamel.

    It goes without saying that the teeth should be looked after by a competent dentist at least every six months, and that defects of any kind should be attended to promptly. Many a tooth can be saved by a timely filling, a well fitted crown, or good bridge work. These matters must be left to the skill of the dentist. The better he understands his art, the more economical will be his services in the long run.

   6. Foci of Infection and their Suppression. The latest theory of medical science is that rheumatism and a number of other acute and chronic diseases are caused by germ infection from suppurating tonsils and adenoids, from abscesses in the teeth and ulceration and pyorrhea of the gums. These shortsighted deductions are the natural outgrowth of the germ theory and of the local and symptomatic conception of disease.

    We find in our institutional work that the aches and pains of rheumatism, headaches and asthmatic spasms, etc., come and go, rise and fall in exact proportion to the increase and decrease of acids and other pathogenic materials in the circulation. I do not deny for a moment that the pathogenic materials in these foci of infection may start or aggravate acute conditions in other parts of the organism, but is it sufficient to suppress the foci of infection with antiseptics and surgical treatment? The question is, what causes the foci of infection, the suppurating tonsils and adenoids, the abscesses in the teeth, the ulcerating gums and jawbones?

    Does medical science imagine that the suppression of these foci of infection with poisonous antiseptics and surgical operations solves the problem? Why cannot they see that this also is rank suppression and not Cure? Can a healthy body, endowed with pure blood, normal tissues and perfect mechanical structural alignment, develop such foci of infection? What is the use of suppressing these symptoms of constitutional disease in one place and haying them bob up at another place in more destructive form? Of such nature are the great achievements of modern medical science.

   7. This latest craze has led in innumerable instances to the pulling out of whole sets of teeth because one or more were abscessed or because of the presence of so-called pyorrhea, which frequently is nothing but a raw condition of the gums induced by encrustation's of tartar on the roots of the teeth. I meet almost daily with people who have been robbed of sound teeth, sometimes of entire sets, on the assumption that it would cure their rheumatism or other constitutional diseases. To their sorrow they find that the cruel sacrifice has brought no relief so far as their chronic ailments are concerned.

    Such criminal experimentation is on a level with tearing out sound ovaries with the idea of curing epilepsy or other chronic diseases. I have known of a number of such uncalled for mutilations. In no instance has the unnatural treatment benefited the patient; it has only served to aggravate the chronic ailment and to hasten physical, nervous and mental breakdown.

    The constant suppression of symptoms of disease by drug poisoning and surgical mutilations creates chronic invalidism, hereditary disease, and defectives. Is it not more rational to put the system, through natural living and treatment, in such a pure and wholesome condition that it cannot develop inflammation and suppuration of the tonsils, teeth, gums and jawbones? Such is the practice of the new school of healing.

   8. Toothache. One of the most excruciating tortures that man inflicts upon himself by wrong living, is the toothache. All the causes I have enumerated and described help to create it, and avoidance of these causes is the best prevention.

    There are two general types of toothache, the acute inflammatory, accompanied by heat and swelling, and the cold neuritic or neuralgic.

   a) The acute inflammatory may be due to congestion and irritation of the blood vessels and nerves of a tooth or row of teeth by systemic poisons, in the same manner that inflammations arise in other parts of the system as the result of pathogenic obstruction and irritation. Acute inflammation may arise when the nerve of a tooth becomes exposed through decay of the bony structure. In that case the attention of a dentist may become necessary. But care must always be taken not to cover decaying particles with a filling or crown. The parts to be covered must be carefully cleansed of all materials that might cause further putrefaction.

   b) Treatment. The acute inflammatory toothache is best treated by retaining cool or cold water in the mouth until it warms up, when it should be spit out and replaced. At the same time cooling compresses or packs should be applied to the cheek on the affected side. The pack as usual consists of a piece of muslin, folded from three to six times, and wrung out in cold water. The cold compress is then covered by one or several folds or dry flannel or woolen cloth. The compress or pack may be kept in place by one of the bandages described on page 390.

    An acute congestive toothache may be greatly relieved by gentle downward massage movements along the veins and lymphatics in the neck. Thorough drainage of these vessels will do much to relieve the congestion in the affected parts. While giving the massage movements, also use your mental power to combine with the mechanical treatment the magnetic effects. Osteopathic, chiropractic and naprapathic treatments prove very effective in many cases.

    In serious attacks the local water treatment may be reinforced by a whole sheet pack, bed sweat bath, or body or leg packs followed by cold ablutions (Sec. XV, p. 147). During the night the sufferer may at intervals take a cold rub and go under the bed covering without drying. All these water applications draw the blood away from the congested area into the surface and thus relieve the local congestion and excruciating pain. They also promote the elimination of the pathogenic materials which are the primary cause of the trouble.

    If acute inflammation within and around the teeth were always treated in this way it would seldom come to the formation of acute or chronic abscesses. The pathogenic materials would be absorbed and eliminated immediately.

    Of equal importance with the water treatment is fasting. From the first appearance of a toothache, absolutely no food should be taken until it has ceased entirely, and even then the fasting should be continued for a day or two in order to clear up the constitutional condition which caused the local inflammation. Fasting alone in many instances has cured the severest toothache.

    I would warn strongly against the use of poisonous pain killers. They only serve to paralyze the nerves and do not in any way remove the underlying causes of the trouble. They add drug poisons to disease poisons and thereby accelerate destruction of the teeth and the gums.

   c) Neuritic Toothache. This type of toothache is not accompanied by great heat and swelling as is the inflammatory kind. It is usually caused by the exposure of a nerve, or by the irritating effect of some systemic or drug poison. If caused by defects of the teeth and by exposure of a nerve, proper dental attention is of course indicated.

   This type of toothache is much more stubborn and does not yield to treatment as easily as does the acute inflammatory kind. Cold water, magnetic and manipulative treatments give but momentary relief. The reason is that the pain will continue or will return at intervals until the poisonous irritant is removed or until the nerve is killed or protected. Sometimes the jaw bones and cheek bones are more affected by these neuritic toothaches than are the teeth themselves This is usually due to the action of some irritating poison.

   d) Treatment. In these cold, persistent forms of toothache, hot applications sometimes give better relief than the cold applications, though the relief is temporary.

    A remedy worth trying when cold treatment fails, consists in the application of a muslin bag partly filled with hot salt and held in place by a bandage. The salt should be as hot as it can be endured.

    The only way these neuritic toothaches can be permanently cured is by eliminating the poisons which are at the root of the trouble.

    In many cases we have found mercury, iodine, arsenic, quinine, or other drugs to be the real cause of the disturbance.

    Elimination of these hidden enemies can be accomplished only by thorough systemic treatment and natural methods of living.

    Many dentists are in the habit of using large doses of iodine, arsenic or other powerful poisons for killing the nerves. They should be warned not to use any more of these destructive poisons than is absolutely necessary. If the work can be accomplished without using them at all, so much the better.

    I would also warn strongly against amalgam fillings. The amalgam or silver filling, so called, contains about 50% of mercury. Acids in the blood and in the fluids of the buccal cavity have a tendency to dissolve the mercury and to create bichlorid of mercury and other mercurial salts which will accumulate in certain parts of the body for which they have a special affinity, particularly in the brain and spinal cord. I am aware that such warnings are pooh-poohed and ridiculed by many dentists, but practical experience tells a different story. The blackening of the teeth indicates formation of mercurial salts. In numerous cases, we have observed pronounced symptoms of mercurial salivation, such as metallic taste in the mouth, ulceration about the necks of the teeth, fetid breath and abnormally increased flow of saliva, which did not disappear until the amalgam fillings were removed from the teeth and replaced by gold, or porcelain. Gold filling, whenever it is practicable, is undoubtedly the best of all.

    I know skilled dentists who have discovered these facts for themselves in the course of practice and who have discontinued the use of amalgam fillings on this account.

    Of late I have met with several cases of paresis which showed distinctly the sign of mercurialism in the iris. Inquiry revealed the fact that these patients were dentists who for many years had been in the habit of mixing the amalgam and alloy in their bare palms. Mercury had thus been absorbed and was responsible for the destruction of brain substance.

   Referring to statements made in section XLIII. 1. In the last paragraph I call attention to the fact that acids act differently on dead and living tissues. The hydrochloric acid secreted by the stomach in normal solution does not affect this organ injuriously, while it readily decomposes the stomach of a dead animal. The same principle holds true in relation to the action of fruit acids on dead and live teeth.





   "What a question," you exclaim. "We grow old because we cannot prevent it; because Nature has decreed it so."

    Of course we shall grow old in years but if we live in harmony with Nature's laws we need not grow old in mind or heart nor lose our physical energy and our alertness and suppleness of body and mind long before the expiration of our allotted time. While growing older in years we should grow younger and more robust as far as our intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual qualities are concerned.

    As regards longevity and the possibility of retaining our youthful qualities to very old age, we meet with two extremes of opinion. Many mental scientists and new thought people tell us in their lectures and writings that it is not impossible to achieve immortality and perpetual youth in the physical body on this earth plane; that we die long before our time because we imagine we must; that a short-lived existence was necessary for animals and human beings in the early stages of evolutionary development, but that now since the physical body has become more perfect the necessity for dying has passed away and that as soon as we can exterminate the old age and death thought which has become race habit, the "last enemy" will be vanquished and immortality and perpetual youth in the flesh will become the common heritage of human kind.

    The majority of mankind entertains an entirely opposite and somewhat pessimistic opinion as regards longevity and the preservation of youth. They are convinced that growing old and decrepit, that losing the enthusiasm, beauty and efficiency of youth is inevitable. They argue that growing old or dying young, health or disease, depend upon heredity, environment, colds, drafts, germs and other accidental circumstances over which we have little or no control. One prominent physician recommended the chloroforming of people over sixty years of age. These two opposing views were brought home to me quite vividly some time ago, while attending a lecture by a well-known mental scientist. His subject on this occasion was "Perpetual youth".

    In alluring language, scintillating with plausible argument and beautiful metaphor, he proved to his own satisfaction the possibility of perpetual youth and life ever lasting in the physical body. After the audience had given fervent expression to its approval of his lofty idealism, an elderly gentleman in the audience arose and delivered his views on youth and longevity in a pessimistic wail that was taken in shorthand by a stenographer present in the audience.

    "This subject of perpetual youth as put forth by our speaker is a beautiful theory. It is a wonderful theory, but I am very clear that it does not work out in life. I do not believe there is such a thing as perpetual youth. It is an ideal belief. You cannot by any process known to human science or human ingenuity turn back the wheels of time or stay them in their revolution."

    "This fountain of perpetual youth old men have sighed for, old women have prayed for, and in search for it from time immemorial young women have appropriated their husbands wages and poured their money into the cash box at the drug store; but they have never yet found it."

    "It is true that by right thought and right action you can probably postpone old age, but you can postpone it only to a very limited degree. The speaker stated that seventeen hundred people in the United States had reached the age of one hundred years, but he did not tell you how many of them are paralyzed, how many of them are palsied, how many are more dead than alive.

    "He tells you that with advancing age the arm of the blacksmith grows stronger. This is true for a certain time, but its strength reaches its zenith, then it grows weaker and weaker until it hammers no more. Young man, you cannot turn back the wheels of time and you cannot stay their revolutions. The time that is past is laid to rest in eternal sleep; it is buried in the mysterious realm of oblivion.

    "Time robs the bridal wreath of its beauty. Time writes wrinkles upon the brow of the aged. You may wreath, garlands and place them around the brow of youth, but the onward march of time sees them wilt and mingle with the dust.

    "The birds that sing so sweetly will return in the spring. The flowers will return and bloom again, but, ah, my friends, youth is gone. It is past forever. It never returns, but age is real and forever-perpetual youth is no more than a beautiful dream."

    As regards the possibility of life everlasting on this earth plane, I for my part would gently but firmly decline it. The idea of living in the same old place forever and forever is not attractive to my mind. I imagine in time it would become too monotonous.

    To me, life is a great school; a school of personal effort for the development of our latent god-like faculties, capacities and powers. This school takes in all there is in the sidereal universe. Its course in length of time is eternity; its classrooms and laboratories are the solar systems and their planets. Whenever we have learnt all there is to learn; all there is to be acquired of knowledge, wisdom and experience in this great school of life, then it will be time for us to die. The only death I know of is stagnation and retrogression. Life is growth; growth is change, continual, perpetual change—senescence and rejuvenescence, as science calls it. Death is only a phase in this continuous process of change.

    The majority of mankind look upon death as the greatest evil in life. They think of it with despair and terror. Some commit suicide because they are afraid to die—a strange paradox, inspired by fear, fear of something that is in reality the greatest of all blessings, the birth into a new and brighter world with new life, new youth, new and broader possibilities, after we have acquired all there is to be learned in one brief earthly pilgrimage.

    Why grieve for the loss of loved ones who have made the great transit before us? Shall we not be glad to meet them when we arrive on the other shore? If we had to travel on a long journey to a foreign country, wouldn't we be pleased to meet with friends among strangers in a strange land?

    Life on earth is only the kindergarten in the great school of the universe. Even the greatest and wisest of men that live on this earth are only in the lower grades of the great Cosmic University. Why should we fear to pass on? Nobody would like to remain in the primary grades all his life when there are so many more interesting, useful and beautiful things to be learned in the higher grades.

    One New Thought philosopher argues that immortality in the flesh, or at least a prolonged term of life on this earth, is necessary in order to acquire all there is to be learned and experienced in this beautiful world of ours and in order to permit the law of compensation to work out the great chain of cause and effect.

    How much more reasonable and beautiful than this idea of continuous existence on earth is the philosophy of Karma and reincarnation of the ancient wisdom religion. Is it not better to have the arduous training of earth life alternate with vacations in the spirit land, and to return oblivious of previous existence's with their depressing burdens of errors, sins and sorrows? Thus death on one plane of life becomes birth into another, and vice versa.

    In this continuous change from the old age of one life to youth in another life, lies for me the true solution of rejuvenescence, of immortality and of perpetual youth.

    If we look upon life from this higher and brighter viewpoint, how can we grieve at growing old? How can we fear death? Those who are in conscious touch with life on the spiritual planes tell us that beings of high spiritual development appear in a condition of youthful maturity, combining the wisdom of millenniums of spiritual and celestial existence with the beauty of perpetual youth. It is not knowledge, wisdom and experience that causes premature senility and death, but wrong thinking, feeling and doing. Aside from unnatural physical habits of living, nothing promotes senile decrepitude like fear of disease and death, bred through ignorance of life's great laws.

    He who looks at life from the higher and brighter viewpoint enjoys advancing life in ever greater serenity of soul and happiness of spirit. He rejoices in ever greater expansion of mind and deeper understanding of life's mysteries. He is justly proud of every year added to a life of usefulness to himself and to his fellow beings. Such a one has only pity for the pessimist's wail previously recited. Such gruesome thinking and feeling is the very essence of black magic that ages and stiffens the body and pencils wrinkles on the brow.

    To grow younger as we grow older, we must practice white magic. The body is an electrotype of our mental images. Physical matter convolutes to the mental and psychical or soul pattern. "As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he," or as Gautama Buddha expressed it, "I am today what my past thoughts and feelings have made me."

    See yourself in your mind's eye as always beautiful, vigorous and active, as in the prime of youth, for "A man is never older than he feels, and a woman never older than she looks." "But", you ask, "how shall we keep our looks young?" That is simple. Bathe daily in the sparkling waters of serenity of mind and of cheerfulness and in the milk of human kindness. Learn how to relax completely in body, mind and soul and never entertain discordant and destructive thoughts and emotions.

Physical Causes of Senescence

   Mental magic alone, powerful as it may be, is not sufficient to prevent the aging of body and mind. We must also live in harmony with the laws of the physical. No matter how good a watch you have, if you allow it to fill up with dust, dirt and corroding acids, it will soon lose time and finally stop entirely. This is exactly what happens to the human clock when it "grows old".

    As philosophy has two divergent opinions concerning the prolongation of life, so has physical science two theories concerning the causes of senescence or senile deterioration. According to one of these theories, the animal and human being is endowed at birth with a certain amount of vitality, or with a certain momentum of vital force. When this is gradually spent in course of time our powers begin to wane; as a result of lowered vitality the vibratory power to expel waste declines; blood and lymph vessels become obstructed, joints stiffen, brain and nerve matter hardens and we grow old and decrepit.

    Certain facts in Nature favor this viewpoint. Even under the most favorable conditions in the freedom of Nature animals live only to a certain age limit. Each species and family of creatures seems to have its own allotted lifetime or age limit. When this limit is reached they suddenly decline and die. I say "suddenly" advisedly. They do not spend a third or a half of their lifetime in getting old and in dying like the average human being. They retain their full vigor and beauty of form almost to the end of life. It is of rare occurrence that a hunter kills an animal that is found to be diseased or deformed. Among antelope, deer and elk the oldest bucks are usually the leaders of the herd. In order to maintain their supremacy they must fight and vanquish their younger rivals.

    So human beings when living the natural life, physically, intellectually, morally and socially, will reach the no limit fixed by Nature for the human species in full possession of their faculties, capacities and powers, and will depart from life peacefully. Death will be as painless and sweet as sleep. I believe that in higher reaches of evolutionary development yet to be attained by mankind, the transition from earth life into spiritual life will not mean the passing "through the valley of the shadow" but that human beings will make the transition in full possession of their waking consciousness.

    The opposite theory advanced by physical scientists as regards the causes of senescence, postulates that vital energy is generated by the cells, tissues and organs of the body, and that as these with advancing age deteriorate and disintegrate, vital energy ceases to be generated and the constituent elements of the body become unfit to carry on the vital activities.

    Natural Therapeutic philosophy teaches that the physical body is an instrument for the manifestation of the great life force which is divine life, intelligence and creative power. God or Nature evidently does not intend us to live on this earth forever in one continuous stretch of life and therefore has wisely limited the supply of vital force as well as the durability of the physical body in accordance with the laws governing incarnation and reincarnation on the physical and spiritual planes of life.

    As before stated, even the healthiest animals living in the most congenial surroundings in the freedom of Nature do not much exceed their allotted span of life, nor do they fall much below it. As a rule, the longer the period between birth and maturity, the longer the life of the animal.

    All the different families of mammalia, when living in freedom, live closely up to the life period allotted to them by Nature. Man is the only exception. It is claimed that according to the laws of longevity his average length of life should be considerably over one hundred years, while according to life insurance statistics the average is at present about forty years. This shows an immense discrepancy between the possible and the actual longevity of man.

    Even this brief average span of life means for the majority of mankind little else than weakness, physical and mental suffering, premature senility and death. Visiting physicians of the public schools in our large cities report that seventy five per cent of all school children show defective health in some way. Diagnosis from the eye proves that the remaining twenty five per cent are also more or less affected by hereditary and acquired disease conditions. Christian Science says, "There is no disease". Nature's records in the iris of the eye prove there is no perfect health.

    These established facts of greatly impaired longevity and universal abnormality of the human race would of themselves indicate that there is something radically wrong somewhere in the life habits of man, and that there is ample reason for the great health reform movement which was started about the middle of the last century by the pioneers of nature cure in Europe and which has since swept, under many forms and guises, all portions of the civilized world.

    When people in general grow better acquainted with the laws underlying prenatal and postnatal child culture, natural living, and the natural treatment of diseases, human beings will approach more closely the normal in health, strength, beauty and longevity.

    However, to reach this ideal of perfect physical, mental and moral health, succeeding generations will have to adhere to the natural ways of living and treating their ailments. It cannot be attained by the present generation. Those enthusiasts who claim that they can, by their particular methods, achieve perfect health and live the full term of human life are destined to disappointment. We are so handicapped by the mistakes of the past that the best which most of us adults can do is to "patch up", to attain a reasonable measure of health and to approach somewhat nearer Nature's full allotment of life.

    Growing old consists in the accumulation of waste and morbid matter, earthy deposits, destructive acids and alkaloids, causing the stiffening and hardening of joints, bones, veins and arteries and the gradual loss of physical and mental energy.

    Do you ever stop to think how this clogging and corroding of the wheels of life is promoted and accelerated by wrong habits of eating and drinking? Food chemistry as taught by the school of Natural Therapeutics clearly shows that excessive use of starchy and proteid foods is the most prolific cause of disease and of premature old age. These classes of foods create in the body a large variety of destructive acids, ptomaines and alkaloids, such as uric acids, sulphuric acid, oxalic acid, indican, xanthins, creatin, etc.

   Flesh foods especially favor these morbid accumulations because they are already saturated with all the waste products of the animal carcass. The poisonous xanthins of coffee and tea are almost identical with uric acid. While at first they over stimulate the organism, the second and lasting effect is to benumb and paralyze heart and nerves and to retard elimination, thus causing directly and indirectly retention and accumulation of waste matter in the body.

    For these reasons, we of the Natural Therapeutic school realize that the only way to keep the system pure and sweet and its vibratory activities vigorous and harmonious is to reduce in the daily dietary the allowance of starchy and proteid food and to use a larger proportion of fruits and vegetables whose alkaline elements tend to dissolve and eliminate the acid crystallizations and deposits in the tissues.

    This becomes more imperative as we grow older. A young and growing body, physically active in play and sport, needs a great deal of sugar and of proteid to furnish fuel and to feed and repair the rapidly growing and changing cells and tissues.

    When we pass the meridian of life, growth ceases; there is much less physical activity and therefore much less need of starchy, fatty and albuminous elements. Therefore, as we advance in years these foods should be reduced in amount and replaced by the dissolving and eliminating fruits and vegetables, but conventional habits and the doctor's advice usually favor the opposite course.

    "You are growing older," says the doctor; "you must have plenty of strengthening foods—meats, eggs, fish, fowl—and you need some stimulants. Coffee or tea is all right and an occasional glass of beer or of "Duffy's Old Malt" won't hurt you, either."

    Frequently a patient tells us, "All the young people in our house are now living on the natural diet, but you know father and mother are growing old and they must have their soup and meat, their coffee and beer; in order to keep up their strength."

    Reverse the prevalent ideas on hygienic living and you are just about right; so in this regard the very opposite policy should be adopted. The older we grow, the less we need of the heavy, clogging foods and the more of the light and purifying.

    The majority of people eat too much anyway. Habitual stuffing practiced through many generations has made it second nature. Many consume the best part of their available vital force in endeavoring to digest and eliminate superfluous quantities of food and drink. Every ounce of food in excess of actual need wastes vital force.

    A Roman proverb said: "Plenus venter non studet libenter"—a full stomach does not like to study.

    Vital energy required to remove useless ballast cannot be transformed into physical or mental energy. Vital force is a primary force. It cannot be eaten. It comes from the source of all life and is independent of the physical body just as electricity is independent of the bulb which it fills with light. Food can only furnish fuel material for the flame of life and keep the human organism in such condition that vital force can manifest itself in it and through it. If food and drink could give life they should prolong it indefinitely; in that case the glutton and drunkard would live the longest, but common experience teaches us that the man temperate in all things best preserves his physical and mental vigor and lives the longest.

    The beauty about all this is that nature cure philosophy does not confine itself to visionary theorizing, but that it "delivers the goods". If we can take all sorts of chronic incurable diseases and within four or five months or a year's time work a wonderful transformation and actually cure the majority of such patients and give them a new lease on life, why should it be impossible to prolong life to its natural limit and to retain to the last, unimpaired, our faculties, capacities and powers of body, mind and soul?

    How much greater would be the possibilities for health and longevity if human beings were brought into life and treated in the natural way from the beginning; that is, from the time of mating and conception through the prenatal and postnatal periods and on through youth and maturity. Within a few generations the offspring of such Natural heredity would live the full allotted time of a hundred and fifty years in perfect health, strength and beauty, thoroughly efficient in the business of life, a true aristocracy not of vitiated, degenerated blue blood, but of pure red blood of perfect buoyant health.

    Many of our young people are now beginning to carry out this great plan for the creation of a better, healthier and more beautiful humanity. They are seeking partners among those who have been educated and trained in the ways of natural living. If the offspring of such naturally mated couples do likewise and select their partners in turn from among those who are the product of natural heredity, what a different humanity will inhabit this earth within a few generations.

    This is not vain dreaming. It is marvelous how the youth of this country have taken hold of these new ideas; how many are adopting the new life in harmony with Natural Therapeutic philosophy, physical culture teachings and other Systems of natural living and healing. Quite frequently young couples come to me, saying, "Doctor; we want to get married; but before we do, give us a thorough examination and, if necessary, we intend to take a course of treatment in order to put our bodies in right condition for the great responsibilities of matrimony and procreation."

   What wisdom-what a glorious promise of a better; healthier and happier humanity!

How to Grow Younger

   Keep in the light—cultivate the air and light bath—nothing sweet or beautiful grows or ripens in the darkness.

    Avoid fear in all its forms of expression; it is responsible for the greater part of human suffering. The only thing to fear is fear.

    Don't live to eat but eat to live. The cook is the chief executioner of King Death.

    In the morning do not say, "I am another day older and so much nearer the end"—say "I feel one day younger."

    How can we grow old with all eternity before us! The wise men tell us that in the higher life the good ones always appear in the vigor and beauty of mature manhood and womanhood.

    What difference makes it if this old suit of ours grows a little shabbier? We shall soon wear a new and better one.

    Be as a child, live simply and naturally, steer clear of too much money and too much worry.

    Cultivate the spirit of content; nothing ages the face and furrows the brow so quickly as nagging discontent, suspicion and jealousy.

    Before going to sleep, throw off all the cares and anxieties of the day and attune your physical, mental and psychical vibrations to harmonies of rest and peace and love.