Cancer: Civilization's
No. 2 Killer


   Cancer is a state of cellular growth which occurs when somenormal cells in the body become abnormal and multiply abnormally. It is characterizedby the ability of the abnormal cells to subdivide and multiply outside of the constraintsthat automatically limit the subdivision and growth of normal cells. It is resultantof imperfect blood chemistry and does not occur in properly nourished and vigorouslyhealthy humans. While cancer is unknown among various primitive populations throughoutthe world, it is common in modern countries, being responsible for one in every fourdeaths, and is still increasing.

   When the epidemiological facts are considered, even briefly,it becomes apparent that the "diseases of civilization", of which canceris only one, are directly caused by faulty living habits practised by the supposedlymore civilized populations, and when the different dietary and other living habitsare compared, it soon becomes further apparent what the main faults are. And to understandhow these faults (mainly dietary) lead to the chronic toxemia which provokes once-healthycells to change form, only a rudimentary knowledge of elementary biology is required,together with the acceptance that all life forms are capable of adaptation to a changedenvironment if necessary for survival.

What Causes Cancer?

   For a start, it has been proven that germs and viruses do notcause cancer. Present cancer research is working on the supposition that cancer iscaused by toxins of various kinds which one way or another find their way into thebody and in some locations cause damage to the nucleus of a cell, turning it intoa cancer cell. The presumption is that a gene within the DNA structure of the cellbecomes altered so that the cell begins to multiply. Such a change to the cell'sDNA is called a mutation. Also suspected of being able to cause cancer in this wayare various forms of radiation, and any substance or influence that either causescancer or tends to cause cancer is called a carcinogen. This hypothesis is a simpleone, and if it were true it should be easy to prove, but although it is well knownthat certain substances can be carcinogenic, they are not always so, and the mechanismby which they are supposed to work has never been demonstrated. The hypothesis thereforeremains only guesswork, and in the minds of most doctors cancer remains a mystery.

   However, there is a theory on the causation of cancer whichhas been proven--one which accords to all known facts and biological laws and hasbeen demonstrated in the laboratory. This theory, called the De-differentiation Theoryof Cancer, developed from knowledge accumulated about how aerobic cells generateenergy by the respiration of oxygen, and is best explained in the books of four ofthe 20th Century's greatest medical scientists: Dr Otto Warburg, Dr Max Gerson ofGermany, Dr William F. Koch of the USA, and Dr Cornelius Moerman of Holland.

   Dr Otto Warburg (1883-1970) was Director of the Max PlanckInstitute of Cell Physiology in Germany. The holder of many international honors,Dr Warburg was considered by Dr Dean Burk, head of the Cytochemistry Department ofthe US National Cancer Institute at the time, to be the world's greatest biochemist.In 1931 Warburg won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of the oxygen transferringenzyme of cell respiration, and was voted a second Nobel Prize in 1944 for his discoveryof the active groups of the hydrogen transferring enzymes. Conferred honorary degreesby the universities of Harvard, Oxford and Heidelberg, he was a member of the RoyalSociety of London, a Knight of the Order of Merit founded by Frederick the Great,and was awarded the Great Cross with Star and Shoulder Ribbon of the Bundesrepublik.Although Jewish, he was unmolested by the Nazis, and in the subsequent invasion ofGermany by the Russians he was accorded protection and special consideration by theRussian High Command. Warburg's research spanned more than sixty years, and he wasthe author of over 500 published research papers and five books. His descriptionof the experiments in which he transformed normal cells into cancer cells was containedin his lecture at the meeting of Nobel-Laureates on 30 June 1966 at Lindau, Germany.This lecture, titled "The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer", was reproducedin English by Dr Dean Burk and published by Konrad Triltsch, Wurzburg, Germany.

   Dr Dean Burk (1904-1988) was a foundation member of theUS National Cancer Institute and former head of its Cytochemistry Department. Forhis work in cancer research he received honors from France, Britain, Germany andRussia. Formerly Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Cornell University, he workedin cancer research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Germany and at the USSR Academyof Science, Moscow. Dr Burk was the recipient of the Domagk Prize for cancer research,a Knight Commander of the Medical Order of Bethlehem, and a Knight of the Mark TwainSociety. He was co-author of the books Cancer, Approaches to Tumor Chemotherapyand Cell Chemistry and author of over 250 published scientific papers. DrWarburg said Burk's outstanding and decisive discoveries in cancer research were:1) the metabolism of the regenerating liver (1941); 2) that the malignancy of cancerwas proportional to the fermentation rate of the cells (1956); and 3) that in vivogrowing hepatomas produced in vivo by carcinogens were similarly more malignant thehigher the fermentation rate (1964).

   Dr Max Gerson (1881-1959) was Jewish but didn't enjoyWarburg's standing. He was forced to flee Germany in 1933, spending the last twentyodd years of his life working in the USA. Best known for his successful dietary treatmentof migraine, lupus, tuberculosis, diabetes and cancer, Gerson was the author of morethan fifty published research papers and four books. Whereas Warburg was supportedand honored for his full-time research, Gerson's great work was ignored by the medicalestablishment. He worked alone devoting his efforts mainly to the treatment of hispatients, most of whom had been given up as hopeless cases by other doctors. UnderGerson's care, Dr Albert Schweitzer, double Nobel Laureate, completely eliminatedhis diabetes and Schweitzer's wife her tuberculosis using Gerson's dietary methods.After Gerson's death Dr Schweitzer said of him: "I see in him one of the mosteminent geniuses in the history of medicine." Notwithstanding recognition bysuch medical greats as Dr Schweitzer and Dr Ferdinand Sauerbruch, Gerson's work receivedno recognition by the medical establishment, which considered him an unorthodox threatto the medical system.

   William F. Koch, BA MA Ph.D MD, was Instructor in Histologyand Embryology at the University of Michigan from 1910-14, Professor of Physiologyat the Detroit College of Medicine from 1914-19, and Director of the Koch CancerClinic from 1919-49. Like Gerson, Koch was considered unorthodox and a threat tothe established medical system, and despite adoption of his methods by independentdoctors in the USA and Canada, he was continually persecuted by the American MedicalAssociation, run at the time by a criminal who called himself Dr Maurice Fishbeinbut whose medical credentials were false. (Fishbein's dictatorial control of Americanmedicine finally ended when he was kicked out at the AMA Convention in Atlantic Cityon 6 June 1949.) Koch was author of numerous publications concerned primarily withthe biochemistry of immunity and of cancer, his best-known book being The SurvivalFactor in Neoplastic and Viral Diseases, published in 1961. Dr Willard Dow, founderof the Dow Chemical Company, described Dr Koch as the greatest biochemist of theage and so far ahead of his contemporaries that they could not understand him.

   Dr Cornelius Moerman graduated in medicine in 1930 andsince then has devoted his entire professional life to cancer research and treatment.His theory of cancer, which he called the Metabolism Theory, he developed independently,but because his reasoning was based on the new knowledge about the respiratory processesof cells and the enzymes necessary for their accomplishment, his conclusions of courseinevitably coincided with those of Warburg, Gerson and Koch. The English translationof his book A Solution to the Cancer Problem was published in 1962 by TheInternational Association of Cancer Victims and Friends Inc., Los Angeles.

   Although doctors Gerson, Koch and Moerman each separately arrivedat the same conclusion and demonstrated the theory by their successful treatmentof human patients, it was Dr Warburg who demonstrated visually in the laboratorythe actual changing of normal cells into cancer cells.

   In fact, Dr Warburg was not the first to demonstrate that cancerarose from cells whose normal respiration had been disturbed. P.G. Seeger had proventhis in 1936, 1937 and 1938 but it was F. Windisch in 1947 who succeeded in changingnormal cells into cancer cells by intermittently withholding oxygen from them, anexperiment repeated in 1953 by H. Goldblatt and G. Cameron. Dr Warburg's experiments,however, actually measured the degrees of respiration and fermentation involved inthe transformation of cells, and actually measured the oxygen pressures inside tumorsin the living body.

   Dr Warburg did not physically interfere with the experimentalhealthy cells in any way, and he did not employ chemicals, heat or radiation--hemerely reduced their supply of oxygen. When he reduced the oxygen needed by the cellsfor normal respiration by thirty-five per cent, they de-differentiated to becomecancer cells.

   How can cells in the human body with an unrestricted air supplybe deprived of oxygen? Answer: toxemia (unhealthy blood).

   Blood carries oxygen to the body's cells together with the nutrientsthe cells need to utilize the oxygen (the vitamins and minerals from which respiratoryenzymes are made). Unhealthy blood is low both ways and sluggish in its flow. DrWarburg's experiment in the laboratory took only days, but in real life cancer maytake years, maybe few, maybe many, depending on the degree of toxemia, but when thecritical point is reached the end result is the same.

   Thus cancer, as with heart disease, can to a large extent bepredicted just by observing a person's dietary and other living habits. A properblood test which took into account blood viscosity and oxygen levels as well as theusual factors would be more precise. As previously explained, in conditions of toxemiabefore symptoms of impending disease become apparent, there appear in the blood microorganismswhich increase in numbers as the milieu interieur further deteriorates. Theseare the pleomorphic microbes described in Chapter 5. The relationship between thisindicator of toxemia and the subsequent incidence of cancer was observed in a studyof twenty-five patients over a twenty-year period by Dr Guy Owens, a surgeon in Amarillo,Texas. He said in 1979:

   "We selected 25 cases from my practise where the organism was repeatedly found during blood counts. They were run of the mill office cases, being male, female, old and young, but apparently in average good health. Over a 20 year period, 23 of these people came down with malignancy of one kind or another . . . proven by surgery and proper pathologic examination. Two cases were lost from our records although one was known to have died from an obscure abdominal condition."

   It is easy to understand why researchers concentrating on studyingone disease can easily be led to false conclusions having identified a microbe presentat the scene, and why the cancer/virus controversy went on for years. However, DrOwens knew that all people carry within them these organisms and that it was theirmultiplication and behavior that indicated a pathological condition. What he didnot know was how the pathological condition caused normal body cells to change intocancer cells.

Differentiation and De-differentiation

   In brief, the transformation of normal cells into abnormal (cancer)cells is a predictable, biological event, obeying natural biological laws in circumstancesthat give the cells no other choice if they are to survive individually. In Chapter3 it was explained how in conditions of constipation, normal aerobic bacteria inthe colon are forced to change into anaerobic bacteria. In a similar fashion, whenbody cells are deprived of oxygen or the enzymes necessary to utilize oxygen theywill endeavor to survive by anaerobic means, and to do this they must change in form,ie, de-differentiate, to a more primitive form.

   Differentiation is the process that takes place in a developingembryo during pregnancy by which primitive, unspecialized embryo cells, as they multiply,change in form to the different specialized cells required to form the differentorgans of the baby's body. At conception, when egg and sperm unite to form one cellwhich then subdivides and multiplies, the new cells--called embryonic cells--areall the same: they are primitive in form, largely anaerobic, and multiply rapidlywithout constraint. And although they are different to the mother's own body cellsand therefore foreign to her body, because of what is known as "blocking factor"they are not challenged by her immune system.

   When the embryo attaches to the mother's circulatory systemand begins to receive nourishment and oxygen from the mother's blood, the embryoniccells become fully aerobic, ie dependent on oxygen. As the embryo continues to grow,the embryonic cells change in form: they become different from each other in orderto construct the different organs of the new body, so that they are identifiableas bone cells, muscle cells, skin cells and so on. They are differentiated.

   In understanding cancer, the points to remember are that embryocells are initially primitive, undifferentiated, largely anaerobic and multiply withoutconstraint, whereas fully differentiated, specialized cells in normal tissues areaerobic and their subdivision and growth is strictly constrained.

   When bacteria, which are single primitive cell organisms, aredeprived of oxygen they are capable of survival by reverting to the process of fermentationof nutrients in order to produce the energy they need. This process, called glycolysis,was the process used by primitive cells billions of years ago before oxygen becamefreely available in the sea and air, and is still part of the aerobic respiratoryprocess employed by oxygen-using cells of living creatures today.

   Glycolysis is an inefficient process which liberates only smallamounts of energy from a given amount of blood sugar, leaving a residue of pyruvicacid which is converted to lactic acid and eliminated. Oxygen-using (aerobic) cellsstill retain glycolysis in the initial stages of their respiratory cycle but areimmensely more efficient because they are capable of taking the pyruvic acid resultantfrom glycolysis and combining it with oxygen, which process not only liberates aboutfifteen times more energy but at the same time leaves only carbon dioxide and wateras by-products, substances which are completely harmless and easily eliminated.

   In order to survive by fermentation, aerobic bacteria must changeinto a more primitive form, and because fermentation is so inefficient, more fuel(blood sugar) must be consumed and a lot of acid produced. This process occurs inthe mouth when the natural bacteria there are deprived of oxygen by food residuesstuck between the teeth, and the acid so produced eats away the tooth enamel to makethe cavities we call tooth decay. Similarly, aerobic bacteria normal in the colon(bowel) change into anaerobic bacteria when putrifying residues of protein and fatcause constipation and acids and other toxins are produced, many of which find theirway into the bloodstream.

   When lipotoxemia and acidic conditions of the blood result indeterioration of the lymph which sustains the tissue cells of the body, the cellsmay be deprived of oxygen or deprived of the enzymes they need to utilize oxygen.When this occurs the milieu interieur , polluted, is referred to as the cancermilieu.

   Like bacteria (which are cells), the cells of the human bodyare similarly capable of reverting to a more primitive form when forced to by interferenceto their normal respiration, and the more their aerobic respiration is curtailed,the more primitive they must become in order to survive. Thus, for a normal fullydifferentiated cell, eg a lung cell, to change into a more primitive form it mustde-differentiate, and in degrees lose its identity as a lung cell, and resemble moreand more the primitive embryo cells from which the body originated. The degree ofdedifferentiation is proportional to the degree the cell is dependent on fermentationto survive, and when the cell reaches a certain stage of primitiveness it forgetsits allegiance to the body as a whole and starts to reproduce as primitive cellsdo, heedless of the body's normal constraints. This unrestrained growth of increasinglydedifferentiated cells is cancer, and the tumor at the site of origin is called theprimary tumor.

   The degree of de-differentiation determines the primitivenessof the cells and therefore their rate of growth, which means that the malignancyof the cancer is directly related to the degree of de-differentiation, fermentationand production of lactic acid. Thus the cancer growth proceeds in a vicious circlebecause the lactic acid and other waste products of the cancer cells worsen furtherthe cancer milieu which started the process off in the first place. Moreover, becausethe cancer cells resemble embryonic cells in structure and function they are to somedegree capable of producing the same blocking factor embryonic cells do, which inhibitsthe immune system from attacking them.

Metastasis--The Main Danger

   Cells do not have to be fully de-differentiated to grow as cancer,and therefore pathology tests can usually identify them with the tissue of theirorigin. Thus, when cancer cells migrate in the blood and lymph and start secondarytumors elsewhere in the body (metastatis), the site of the primary growth can usuallybe determined by examination of cells from the secondary. The secondary growths arethe most fast growing, because although at the tissue of their origin the normalconstraints to growth still tend to control the primary cancer, away from the tissueof origin the constraints do not exist. Primary tumors therefore are usually slowgrowing, and it is only when metastasis occurs that cancer is considered to be terminal.

   As the cancer growth proceeds, the process becomes a viciouscircle in which more and more of the body's supply of blood sugar is squandered inthe wasteful production of lactic acid and so the entire body, poisoned and starvedof sustenance, wastes away in the condition known as cachexia.

Important--Note Well

   When primary tumors liberate stray cancer cells into the circulation,for metastasis to occur such cells must first escape destruction by the immune system,and then lodge in a location where the circulation is blocked by a thrombus (fibrinclot). This was demonstrated by Dr Summer Wood of Boston in 1958 (AMA Archivesof Pathology, Vol. 66, October 1958). About the same time, Dr L. Michaels ofCanada reasoned that if no clots were allowed to form, then metastasis from a primarytumor could not occur, and that people with only primary cancers would in that casebe in a much safer situation. This he proved to be the case. He studied the medicalhistories of a large number of heart and stroke patients kept on permanent anti-coagulantdrug treatment to protect their blood circulation, to ascertain the incidence ofcancer deaths among them, and found the incidence to be only one eighth of the expectednumber. The study covered the equivalent of 1569 patient/years and there was nota single case of death by cancer metastasis in the group. Thus it is easy to understandwhy fat is a major factor in most cancers and why herbal anti-coagulants such asgarlic, aloe vera and so on assist people on high-fat diets to avoid cancer.

   The major factor underlying the cancer process is improper diet.The incidence of all kinds of cancer is related more to the high intake of cookedfood containing fat, protein, cholesterol, salt and preservatives than to anythingelse, although anything at all detrimental to the purity of the bloodstream mustone way or another contribute to the problem. The deprivation of oxygen to the cellsis caused not only by high blood viscosity, poor circulation and low oxygen levels,but also by the absence of the enzymes needed to process the oxygen. The respiratoryenzymes may be absent because of nutrients missing from the diet*, or the respiratoryenzymes may be inhibited by carcinogens in the bloodstream derived from sources suchas food, smoking, alcohol, putrefaction in the colon and poisons from infected teeth.

   Dr Joseph Issels of Germany, who has researched and treatedcancer for fifty years, asserts that poisoning from infected teeth is one of theprime causes of cancer, and this viewpoint is supported by Dr Mulhim Hassan of Lebanonin his book Prevention and Cure of Cancer.

   However, of all the many factors which in one way or anothercontribute to the deterioration of the milieu interieur and predispose thebody to cancer, constipation appears to be by far the worst. It is important to rememberthat a regular daily bowel movement does not mean the absence of constipation; whatcounts is the time food residues take to transit the digestive tract. On the traditionalWestern diet of mainly cooked unsuitable food the transit time is about seventy-twohours, which means that "regular" or not, there are always stagnant putrefyingresidues occupying the colon producing carcinogenic substances, some of which provokelocal problems and some of which perfuse back into the bloodstream. Sir William ArbuthnotLane,* the famous British surgeon, repeatedly emphasized he had never known a singlecase of cancer that had not been preceded by prolonged intestinal stasis.

   Professor Aviles of the Biochemistry of Cancer Department, Guadalajara,Mexico reported that out of 7715 cancer patients examined by him over a fifteen-yearperiod, at least ninety-nine per cent had suffered from constipation and that thedegree of malignancy was parallel to the degree of constipation. Doctors Dennis Burkittand Hugh Trowell, who both spent twenty-five years working in rural Africa, agreedthat in those areas where the diet of the natives consisted almost entirely of fruitand vegetables, the "transit time" of the natives was about twenty-fourhours, there was no such thing as constipation and cancer was non-existent. Dr E.H. Tipper in his book The Cradle of the World and Cancer (1927) said:

   "Cancer has been suspected of being a disease of civilization. judging from my experience in general practise in London, twenty years in West Africa, and again in rural England, I am convinced that this is true. It is due to the conventionalism and bad feeding of civilization, and is an exact index of the degree to which the alimentary tract has deviated from its natural and normal state of health. In the case of cancer, constipation and excessive meat-eating should be the two suspects, when they are present cancer is rife, where absent there is none."

   However, despite the foregoing, a low-fat, low-cholesterol dietis no guarantee against cancer unless toxemia from other sources is avoided, andsuch toxemia is possible on a high-protein vegetarian diet containing excessive quantitiesof grain products and lentils. The author's observations of cancer occurring amongconscientious followers of the Pritikin diet led him to suspect the heavy dependenceon grain products, having previously noted the exacerbation of arthritis which accompaniedexcessive intake of these foods. These suspicions were confirmed by the results ofthe US Government's six-year Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT), evaluatedin the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in Janunary 1987.The trial was conducted to evaluate the risk factors involved in coronary heart disease,in particular the relationship between blood cholesterol levels and heart attacksamong the 12,000 male participants. As expected, the group with the lowest cholesterollevels (below 4.3) suffered only one quarter the death rate from heart attacks thanthe group with the highest cholesterol but, surprisingly, this low cholesterol groupsuffered just on fifty per cent more deaths from cancer than all the other groups(whose death rates from cancer were all about the same as each other), which ledsome doctors to believe that low cholesterol levels could actually favor the onsetof cancer. But this did not make sense because all previous knowledge showed lowcholesterol to be protective against cancer.

   However, bearing in mind the acid-producing effects of excessiveconsumption of grains and other high-protein vegetables, we can explain the apparentanomaly. As Nathan Pritikin had already demonstrated before the MRFIT trial began,the only way to achieve such big reductions in blood cholesterol is to eliminatealmost entirely from the diet all cholesterol-containing foods and in their placesubstitute cholesterol-free foods such as grain products, lentils, vegetables andfruit. This diet works wonderfully to lower cholesterol and to improve circulation,but because too little fruit is eaten and because vegetables are eaten mostly cookedand are less satisfying, and because grain products and lentils are not limited andare satisfying, it is the grain products and lentils that are consumed inexcessive quantities capable of producing acid toxemia, despite the fact constipationmay no longer exist. Pritikin advised the intake of copious quantities of raw saladto offset the acid formed from the grains, but it's a fact that most people justdon't like eating a lot of salad and would rather stuff themselves with rice, oatsor spaghetti, all of them acid forming.

   The cancer process, like atherosclerosis, may take many yearsto develop, and the onset of the cancer growth itself usually appears in middle ageor later when the vital organs have degenerated to the stage they can no longer maintaina reasonable degree of purity of the milieu interieur . In the years precedingthe appearance of cancer as a growth, the tissues pass through a stage known as pre-cancer,and while the body's immune system is capable of reasonable function, any cancercells that form, at least in the early stages, may be quickly destroyed by the immunesystem's white cells, providing of course that the white cells are capable of reasonablefunction. It should be noted that fat and cholesterol in the blood severely inhibitthe white cells' activity.

   Dr Max Gerson, referring to experiments with animals, said thatwhatever chemical assault was necessary to cause cancer in them the cancer nevercommenced until after the liver function became impaired, "together with pathologicalchanges in the kidneys, spleen and lymphatic apparatus". Gerson illustratedthis point with an experiment in which he completely eliminated cancer in a rat simplyby interconnecting its blood circulation with that of a healthy rat whose liver wasfully functional.

   Primary cancer occurs mainly in tissues which in their day-to-dayfunction have a constant wearing out and renewal of cells: tissues such as the skin,the lining of the digestive tract, the respiratory tract and the female genital canal.Apart from the fact that the cells in these tissues tend to rapidly reproduce anyway,these tissues are exposed to irritation of various kinds which promotes normal renewalgrowth. New growth requires temporary dedifferentiation of cells in any tissue, andif the tissue is in a pre-cancerous state any irritation or injury may be sufficientto trigger partially de-differentiated cells into becoming cancer cells. It has beenpostulated in the past that irritation or injury may be a cause of cancer, a postulationwhich of course in incorrect because irritation or injury cannot trigger cancer inhealthy tissue.

   Cancer is often also linked with emotional factors such as worryand grief. The two factors, physical injury and emotional stress, time and againprecede the appearance of cancer, separately or together, and have often been thoughtto be primary causes of cancer. However, it is clear that cancer occurs only in tissuethat is pre-cancerous beforehand and that irritation and emotional stress are onlysecondary factors, irritation by its effect on triggering cell growth, and emotionalstress by its effect on depressing the cancer-fighting ability of the body's immunesystem. Probably in the same way emotional stress favors the onset of cancer, ithas long been observed by physicians that people with melancholy personalities seemto be more prone to the disease, it being proposed there is such a thing as a "cancerpersonality". On the other hand, it would seem more likely that the melancholydisposition is not a cause of cancer but, like the cancer itself, just another symptomof a toxic bloodstream.

   Hormone imbalance may also enter the picture; breast canceris often associated with high levels of estrogen, the female growth hormone, andit should be noted that overproduction of estrogen is caused by high levels of fatin the diet. As Nathan Pritikin explained, it is the abnormal production of estrogendue to fat in the Western diet that accounts for the premature sexual developmentand bigger breasts of today's young girls.

   Smoking is considered to be the primary cause of lung cancer,but research has shown that its role in producing lung cancer is mainly that of anirritant triggering new growth in tissue already pre-cancerous. Asbestos causes similarirritation. The role of smoking as a real primary cancer cause is its effect of introducingcarbon monoxide into the bloodstream and reducing available oxygen to the tissues.Strong sunshine is thought to be the prime cause of skin cancer, but it is no suchthing; it is an irritant which triggers new cell growth it is true, but skin canceronly eventuates in skin which is pre-cancerous, and when people adopt a low-fat,low-cholesterol diet they find the skin cancers no longer occur.

   Billions and billions of dollars have been spent on desperateresearch to find a cure for cancer, a quest doomed to failure from the start eventhough doctors talk about various rates of cures obtained by surgery, radiation andchemotherapy. A person is regarded as cured of cancer if after the operation thecancer does not re-appear in five years, and all through that anxious five yearsor in the next maybe less anxious five years (if the patient lasts that long) nobodyknows if and when the cancer will "strike" again.

   Cancer can be considered "cured" only if the causesunderlying it are understood and permanently removed, so that the affected tissuecan become healthy again by the process of natural healing, called a spontaneousremission in medical parlance. The simple solution to the cancer problem is to stopdoing the things that cause cancer. At the meeting of Nobel Laureates in Lindau,Germany on 30 June 1966, Dr Otto Warburg concluded his address as follows:

   "Nobody today can say that one does not know what cancer and its prime cause be. On the contrary, there is no disease whose prime cause is better known, so that today ignorance is no excuse that one cannot do more about prevention. The prevention of cancer will come there is no doubt, for man wishes to survive. But how long prevention will be avoided depends on how long the prophets of agnosticism will succeed in inhibiting the application of scientific knowledge in the cancer field. In the meantime, millions of people must die of cancer unnecessarily."

Note: For additional hope and understanding of cancer see "RecommendedReading on Cancer" in the Appendix.