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Liebig's Chemical Letters

 

CONTENTS

PREFACE

LETTER I
The Subject proposed. Materials employed for Chemical Apparatus:- Glass - Caoutchouc- Cork - Platinum. THE BALANCE. The "Elements" of the Ancients, representthe forms of matter. Lavoisier and his successors. Study of the materials composingthe Earth. Synthetic production of Minerals - Lapis Lazuli. Organic Chemistry.

LETTER II
Changes of Form which every kind of Matter undergoes. Conversion of Gases into Liquidsand Solids. Carbonic Acid - its curious properties in a solid state. Condensationof Gases by porous bodies. By Spongy Platinum. Importance of this property in Nature.

LETTER III
The Manufacture of Soda from Culinary Salt; its importance in the Arts and in Commerce.Glass - Soap - Sulphuric Acid. Silver Refining. Bleaching. TRADE IN SULPHUR.

LETTER IV
Connection of Theory with Practice. Employment of MAGNETISM as a moving power - itsimpracticability. Relation of Coals and Zinc as economic sources of Force. Manufactureof Beet-root Sugar - its impolicy. Gas for illumination.

LETTER V
ISOMERISM, or identity of composition in bodies with different chemical and physicalproperties. CRYSTALLISATION. AMORPHISM. ISOMORPHISM, or similarity of propertiesin bodies totally different in composition.

LETTER VI
ALLIANCE OF CHEMISTRY WITH PHYSIOLOGY. Division of Food into nourishment, and materialsfor combustion. Effects of Atmospheric Oxygen. Balance of CARBON and OXYGEN.

LETTER VII
ANIMAL HEAT, its laws and influence on the Animal Functions. Loss and SUPPLY. Influenceof Climate. Fuel of Animal Heat. Agency of Oxygen in Disease. Respiration.

LETTER VIII
ALIMENTS. Constituents of the Blood. Fibrine, Albumen. Inorganic Substances. Isomerismof Fibrine, Albumen, and elements of nutrition. Relation of animal and vegetableorganisms.

LETTER IX
Growth of Animals. Uses of Butter and Milk. Metamorphoses of Tissues. Food of Carnivora,and of the Horse.

LETTER X
Application of the preceding facts to Man. Division of human Food. Uses of Gelatine.

LETTER XI
CIRCULATION OF MATTER IN THE ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE KINGDOMS. The Ocean. AGRICULTURE.RESTITUTION OF AN EQUILIBRIUM IN THE SOIL. Causes of the exhaustion of Land. Virginia.England. Relief gained by importation of bones. Empirical farming unsatisfactory.Necessity for scientific principles. Influence of the atmosphere. Of Saline and Earthymatters of the soil.

LETTER XII
SCIENCE AND ART OF AGRICULTURE. NECESSITY OF CHEMISTRY. Rationale of agriculturalprocesses. Washing for gold.

LETTER XIII
ILLUSTRATION OF THE NECESSITY OF CHEMISTRY TO ADVANCE AND PERFECT AGRICULTURE. Mannerin which FALLOW ameliorates the soil. Uses of Lime. Effects of Burning. Of Marl.

LETTER XIV
NATURE AND EFFECTS OF MANURES. Animal bodies subject to constant waste. Parts separating- exuviae - waste vegetable matters - together contain all the elements of the soiland of food. Various value of excrements of different animals as manure.

LETTER XV
SOURCE OF THE CARBON AND NITROGEN OF PLANTS. Produce of Carbon in Forests and Meadowssupplied only with mineral aliments prove it to be from the atmosphere. Relationsbetween Mineral constituents, and Carbon and Nitrogen. Effects of the Carbonic Acidand Ammonia of Manures. Necessity of inorganic constituents to the formation of aliments,of blood, and therefore of nutrition. NECESSITY OF INQUIRIES by ANALYSIS to advanceAGRICULTURE.

LETTER XVI
RESULTS OF THE AUTHOR'S LATEST INQUIRIES. Superlative importance of the PHOSPHATESOF LIME and ALKALIES to the cultivation of the CEREALIA. Sources of a SUPPLY of theseMATERIALS.